3/20 - UW 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 3/20 - UW 15 Deck (52):
1

What prevents C. diff from infecting healthy people?

Intestinal biomass...so much good bacteria!

2

What are the two possible cancers that cause blue lesions under the nail?

Glomus tumor (glomangioma)

Subungual melanoma

3

What the hell is a glomus body?

Small, encapsulated neurovascular organs in the dermis of the nail bed, pads of digits, and ears. For thermoregulation.

4

What is the prototypical triple helix polypeptide?

Collagen

5

What role does Proline play in the collagen structure?

Introduces bends into the chain

6

What are the three most common AA in collagen?

1. Glycine (every third residue)
2. Proline
3. Lysine

7

What non-foregut organ is supplied by a foregut artery?

Spleen (by the splenic art. off the celiac trunk)

8

What enzyme is missing in Crigler-Najjar syndrome?

UGT, which catalyzes bile glucuronidation into conjugated bilirubin

9

What is kernicterus caused by Crigler-Najjar?

Severe jaundice and neurologic impairment

10

What process is impaired in Dubin-Johnson syndrome?

Active transport of conjugated bilirubin into bile ducts

11

What does the liver look like in Dubin-Johnson?

Darkly pigmented

12

What syndrome is similar to Dubin-Johnson, with impaired bilirubin secretion into bile ducts?

Rotor syndrome

13

In addition to histamine, what enzyme is released by mast cells in anaphylaxis?

Tryptase

14

In what cells can you find myeloperoxidase?

Neutrophils

15

What is increased 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) associated with?

Serotonin breakdown, particularly in carcinoid syndrome

16

How does IgE cause mast cell degranulation?

Cross linking

17

What movement of the lung does "compliance" describe?

The ability to stretch during inhalation

18

What is a common topical treatment for psoriasis? MOA?

Vit D analogs (calcipotriene, calcitriol, tacalcitol), activating nuclear transcription factor that inhibits keratinocyte proliferation and stimulates kertatinocyte differentiation

19

Cyclosporine MOA?

Inhibits calcineurin, inhibiting NFAT from transcribing IL-2, which activate T cells

20

What does Etanercept inhibit?

TNF-a

21

What does Methotrexate inhibit?

DHF reductase

22

Fever, pharyngitis, general LAD in a young adult = ???

MONO!

23

What is the primary viral cause of infectious mononucleosis? What neoplasms is it associated with?

EBV, Hodgkins and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Burkitt's lymphoma

24

What virus is associated with anal carcinoma?

HPV

25

What is carnitine used for?

Transport of fatty acids into the mitochondria

26

What is a common cause for Zenker diverticulum?

Increased intraluminal oropharyngeal pressure causes herniation through posterior hypopharynx, due to cricopharyngeal muscle dysfunction

27

What abx binds to cell wall glycoproteins? Where?

Vancomycin, terminal D-alanine residues

28

What abx binds to PBPs?

Penicillin and cephalosporins. Like transpeptidases.

29

What abx binds to DNA gyrase?

Fluoroquinolones

30

What type of ALL is more likely to present with mediastinal mass?

T-ALL

31

Blast cells in the peripheral blood suggests what type of neoplasm?

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

32

What are the cell surface markers for B cell ALL?

CD10, 19, 20

33

What are the cell surface markers for T cell ALL?

CD2-8

34

What marker do all ALLs have?

TdT?

35

What cells produce androgen binding protein in the seminiferous tubules?

Sertoli cells

36

What chemotherapeutic agents cause hemorrhagic cystitis?

Cyclophosphamide or its analogs (e.g. ifosfamide)

37

How does cyclophosphamide cause hemorrhagic cystitis?

It's renally metabolized into acrolein, which is toxic to uroepithelial cells, causing cell death and necrosis

38

When might you use N-actylcysteine (NAC)?

Acetaminophen overdose, or as a mucolytic or reno-protective agent

39

What is Leucovorin (aka folinic acid) used for?

Methotrexate overdose

40

When might you use Filgrastim? MOA?

Stimulate proliferation and differentiation of granulocytes (i.e. post-chemotherapy). As a G-CSF analog.

41

When might you give Dexrazoxane? MOA?

Iron chelating agent used for anthracycline (e.g. doxorubicin)-induced cardiotoxicity

42

Amifostine MOA?

Cytoprotective free-radical scavenging agent to decrease nephrotoxicity from some chemotherapeutic agents

43

What is hydrocephalus ex vacuo?

Compensatory ventricular expansion due to brain atrophy; no increase in ICP

44

What is pseudotumor cerebri?

Idiopathic intracranial HTN, with normal CSF content and normal neuroimaging

45

What is lissencephaly?

Congenital absence of gyri

46

What to give for drug-induced parkinsonism?

Antimuscarinic (trihexyphenidyl, benztropine), NOT dopamine drugs

47

Characteristic side effects of marjiuana intoxication?

Conjunctival injection, tachycardia, increased appetite, dry mouth

48

What type of headache produces facial flushing, nasal congestion, lacrimation, pupillary changes?

Cluster

49

What type of headache is band-like (bilateral)?

Tension

50

Describe a migraine headache

F > M, often with FH

Unilateral, pulsatile/throbbing

Auras, photophobia and phonophobia, nausea

51

Describe a cluster headache

M > F, no FH

Excruciating, sharp pain located behind one eye

Sweating, facial flushing, nasal congestion, lacrimation, pupillary changes

52

Describe a tension headache

F > M, no FH

Often due to stress, with a band like, bilateral distribution

Dull, tight persistent pain with muscle tenderness of the head/neck/shoulders