4/2 - UW 39 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4/2 - UW 39 Deck (48):
1

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a rare complication of what disease?

Measles

2

What is another name for galactosyl-beta-1,4-glucose?

Lactose

3

How does factor V Leiden cause thrombophilia?

Factor Va has resists protein C cleavage

4

What disorder causes DNA hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation?

Ataxia-telangiectasia (autosomal recessive)

5

What disorder causes DNA hypersensitivity to UV radiation?

Xeroderma pigmentosum

6

What disorder causes DNA hypersensitivity to cross linking agents?

Fanconi anemia

7

What disorder is characterized by generalized chromosomal instability?

Bloom syndrome

8

What disorder causes defects in DNA mismatch-repair?

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)

9

What changes do you see in Ataxia-telangiectasia?

Cerebellar atrophy (causing ataxia), oculocutaneous telangiectasia, severe immunodeficiency, cancer risk

10

What is the Schilling test?

1. Oral radiolabeled vit B12
2. IM injection unlabeled B12

Normal urinary B12 = normal absorption, thus any deficiency is due to dietary def.

Low urinary B12 = absorption issue

11

If B12 def is determined to be an absorption issue, how to differentiate between pernicious anemia and malabsorption?

Pernicious anemia: autoimmune destruction of parietal cells in atrophic gastritis, so giving B12 with IF would result in normal urinary B12.

Malabsorption: pancreatic insufficiency, bacterial overgrowth, short gut syndrome, so even B12 with IF would not give normal urinary excretion

12

With what drug should AIDS patients be prophylactically treated for PCP?

TMP-SMX (first line)
Dapsone (in case of allergy, but must check G6PD level!)

13

What are some common precipitating factors of G6PD deficiency?

1. Infx
2. Drugs (dapson, antimalarials, sulfonamide abx)
3. DKA
4. Fava beans

14

What is suggested by anemia, elevated LDH and indirect bilirubin, and a positive osmotic fragility test?

Hemolytic anemia with spherocytes

15

How does chronic hemolysis cause pigmented gallstones?

Increased bilirubin precipitate as calcium bilirubinate.

16

Folate deficiency requires supplement of what AA?

Thymidine!

17

What segment of the GI tract is affected by Hirschsprung disease?

Colon: migration of neural crest cells goes proximal to caudal, so rectum is always involved.

18

Where is airway resistance the highest?

In the medium sized bronchi

19

What are some common presentations of CMV in AIDS patients?

Retinitis
Esophageal ulcers
Colitis

20

What is the term for the process by which a bacteriophage infects a bacterium, integrating its genome into the bacteria?

Lysogenization

21

What organism gains pathogenicity by transformation of capsule genes?

S. pneumoniae

22

What organism gains pathogenicity by conjugation-mediated pili production?

E. coli

23

What organism gains pathogenicity by lysogenization-mediated exotoxin production?

C. diphtheriae

24

What are the selective beta blockers (b1)?

Metoprolol, atenolol, acebutolol, esmolol

25

What is a common cause of injury to the long thoracic nerve?

Mastectomy

26

What is a common presentation after violent stretch between the head and shoulder?

Brachial plexus upper trunk damage: Erb-Duchenne palsy "waiter's tip" posturing. Damage to the suprascapular and musculocutaneous nerves

27

What nerve is injured by anterior dislocation of the shoulder joint or humeral neck fracture?

Axillary nerve: paralysis of deltoid, teres minor, and sensory of upper lateral arm

28

What is Dobutamine's effect?

Beta adrenergic agonist (B1 mostly, some B2 and A1)

Inotropy, weakly chronotropic

29

What pathology presents as cuboidal or polygonal cells with clear abundant cytoplasm and eccentric nuclei?

Clear cell renal carcinoma

30

Where does Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma originate?

Epithelium of the Proximal Tubules

31

Amitriptyline side effects can mimic toxicity of what drug?

Atropine

32

What tumors can produce hCG in males?

Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (malignant testicular tumors)

33

Very high hCG levels can mimic what hormone, causing sweating and heat intolerance?

TSH

34

What is a common site of metastasis for Choriocarcinoma?

Lungs

35

How do organophosphates cause poisoning?

Irreversible AChE inhibition (confusion, miosis, bradycardia, low BP, flushing, diaphoresis, lacrimation, etc)

36

Derivative of Arginine?

NO

37

Derivative of Arginine + Aspartate?

Urea

38

Derivative of Glycine + Syccinyl CoA?

Heme

39

Derivative of Glycine, arginine, and SAM?

Creatinine

40

Derivative of Glutamate?

GABA, glutathione

41

Derivative of Glutamine + Aspartate?

Pyrimidines

42

Derivative of Glutamine, aspartate and glycine?

Purines

43

Derivative of Histidine?

Histamine

44

Derivative of Tyrosine?

DA, Epi, NE, Thyroxine, Melanin

45

Derivative of Tryptophan?

5-HT, Melatonin, Niacin

46

Temporal lobe involvement is characteristic of what viral infx?

HSV-1 encephalitis

47

What are the proto-oncogenes?

"SIS! Are you ABLe to take the RAScals MYC and ERB to TGiF?"
sis (astrocytoma, osteosarcoma)
abl (CML, ALL)
ras (lung, pancreas, colon, kidney, bladder)
N-myc (neuroblastoma, SCC)
ERB (B1: Squamous cell carcinoma, B2: breast and ovarian)
TGFa (astrocytoma, HC carcinom)

48

What are characteristic findings in multiple myeloma?

Normocytic, normochromic anemia, IL-1 and IL-6 secretion (bone resorption, osteopenia, lytic lesions, hyperCa), abnormal plasma cells secrete abnormal antibodies, AMYLOID birefringence on Congo red stain (apple-green), renal failure