3/22 - UW 17 Flashcards Preview

Step 1 > 3/22 - UW 17 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3/22 - UW 17 Deck (58):
1

What is digital clubbing caused by?

Hypoxic conditions: Heart or lung disease, IBD, hyperthyroidism, malabsorption

2

What kind of nuclear material is in the mitochondria?

mtDNA is a small, circular chromosome coding for 14 proteins and their associated rRNA and tRNA

3

What MRSA tx causes Red Man Syndrome and nephrotoxicity? MOA?

Vanc, blocks glycopeptide polymerization be binding to D-alanyl-D-alanine

4

What is Red Man Syndrome?

Due to vancomycin: flushing or rash on face, neck, torso due to nonspecific mast cell degranulation, NOT IgE-mediated

5

What MRSA tx causes myopathy and CPK elevation, that is inactivated by surfactant? MOA?

Daptomycin, depolarizes cellular membrane

6

What MRSA tx causes thrombocytopenia and optic neuritis, and increases risk for serotonin syndrome? MOA?

Linezolid, inhibits 50S subunit

7

What street drug causes nystagmus?

Phencyclindine (PCP)

8

What street drug causes chest pain and sz?

Cocaine

9

What street drug causes choreiform movements?

Meth

10

Cocaine MOA?

Blocks reuptake of DA, NE, 5HT in CNS

11

Phencyclidine (PCP) MOA?

Antagonizes NMDA rececptor

12

Acyclovir MOA?

Guanosine analog: first phosphorylated by viral thymidine kinase (rate limiting step) to monophosphate, then to active triphosphate form

13

Why are EBV and CMV less susceptible to acyclovir than HSV and VZV?

Different thymidine kinase limits ability to activate acyclovir by phosphorylation

14

Why is CMV more sensitive to ganciclovir than other herpesviruses?

Differences in viral DNA polymerase structure

15

What is the primary site of rRNA synthesis?

Nucleolus

16

What do RNA polymerase I, II, and III do?

RPI: rRNA
RPII: mRNA, snRNA, miRNA
RPIII: tRNA, 5S rRNA

17

What is the fxn of Secretin?

Pancreatic BICARB secretion

18

What is the effect of CCK on the gallbladder? What is it secreted by?

Contraction, secreted by duodenal and jejunal I cells

19

What is the fxn of Gastrin?

Secretion of gastric acid, and gastric motility

20

What is an antidepressant that doesn't have sexual dysfunction side effects?

Bupropion

21

What CN carries motor innervation to the tongue?

Hypoglossal (CN XII), except the palatoglossus muscle (CN X)

22

What CNs carry general sensory from the tongue?

Anterior 2/3: mandibular branch of trigeminal (CN V3)
Posterior 1/3: glossopharyngial (CN IX)
Posterior part of tongue root: CN X

23

What CNs carry gustatory sensation from the tongue?

Anterior 2/3: chorda tympani of facial nerve (CN VII)
Posterior 1/3: glossopharyngeal (CN IX)
Posterior of tongue root: CN X

24

Jejunal ulcers is strongly suggestive of what neoplasm?

Gastrinomas: neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas, peripancreatic tissue, or duodenum

25

Sx of VIPoma?

Intractable diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, hypokalemia

26

With gout, what accumulates in the synovial fluid and forms crystals?

Monosodium urate (uric acid salt)

27

With gout, levels of what increases in the serum?

Uric acid

28

What is lead time bias?

Bias in lead time (time between detection and outcome) due to different detection methods, without actual change in time to outcome

29

What is suggested with fatigue, bradycardia, weight fain, and slowed DTRs?

Hypothyroidism

30

What does the dexamethasone suppression test screen for?

Cushing's syndrome (cortisol excess)

31

What substrates can be formed into propionyl CoA?

Isoleucine, valine, threonine, methionine
Cholesterol
Odd cahin fatty acids

32

What cofactor is necessary for the carboxylation of propionyl CoA to methylmalonyl CoA?

Biotin, cofactor for propionyl CoA carboxylase

33

What product of methylmalonyl CoA enters the TCA?

Succinyl CoA

34

What is the cofactor for isomerization of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA?

B12

35

A newborn with lethargy, emesis, hypotonia, AGMA, ketosis, and hypoglycemia is suggestive of what?

Propionyl acidemia

36

Phosphoinositol system?

Ligand ginds to Gq, activates PLC, hydrolyzing PIP2 into DAG and IP3. DAG stimulates PKC. IP3 increased intracellular Ca

37

What is visible 12-28 hours after ischemic inj to the brain?

Red neurons (eosinophilic cytoplasm, pyknotic nuclei, loss of Nissl substance)

38

What is visible 3-6 hours after ischemic inj to the brain?

No visible changes

39

What is visible 3-5 days after ischemic inj to the brain?

Macrophage infiltration and phagocytosis

40

What is visible 1-3 days after ischemic inj to the brain?

Necrosis and neutrophilic infiltration

41

What is visible 1-2 weeks after ischemic inj to the brain?

Reactive gliosis and vascular proliferation = liquefactive necrosis

42

When does the glial cell form after ischemic inj to the brain?

Over 2 weeks later

43

When do you see macrophages after an ischemic inj to the brain?

3-5 days

44

What do you see neutrophils after an ischemic inj to the brain?

1-3 days

45

DKA is strongly associated with what fungal infection?

Mucor species

46

What is the most common cause of lacunar infarcts?

hypertensive arteriolosclerosis of small, penetrating arterioles

47

What lymph nodes does the prostate drain to?

Internal iliac nodes primarily, as well as external iliacs and sacral

48

What liver disease presents with severe, nocturnal pruritis?

Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

49

What is the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis?

Autoimmune destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts and cholestasis

50

Which cholesterol medication has a side effect of gouty arthritis?

Niacin

51

Niacin MOA?

Decreasing hepatic synthesis of triglycerides and VLDL. Also increase HDL by 25-30%

52

What medications increase serum uric acid levels?

Niacin, HCTZ, cyclosporing, pyrazinamide

53

Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is the precursor for what endogenous peptides?

beta-endorphin, ACTH, MSH

54

What is the eponym for esophageal cells showing dysplasia at high risk of adenocarcinoma?

Barrett's esophagus (intestinal type epithelium with goblet cells

55

What are the risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma?

Primary: alcohol and tobacco
Secondary: Plummer-Vinson syndrome, achalasia, corrosive strictures

56

What are the 3 components of a craniopharyngioma (arising from remnants of Rathke's pouch)?

1. solid (actual tumor cells)
2. cystic (filled with machinery oil liquid)
3. calcified

57

What are some sx of congenital hypothyroidism?

Jaundice, macroglossia, myxedema, lethargy, hypotonia, hoarse cry

58

Congenital hypothyroidism is associated with what cardiac abnormalities?

ASD, VSD