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Flashcards in 3/24 - UW 22 Deck (41):
1

What is the genetic abnormality and inheritance of Lynch syndrome?

AD abnormal nucleotide mismatch repair

2

Mutations in what two genes lead to 90% of Lynch syndrome cases?

MSH2 and MLH1

3

What type of TB infx is indicated by hemoptysis, weight loss, and upper lobe cavitary lesion?

Secondary (reactivation) TB infx

4

Where does a primary TB infx tend to present?

Focal lesions in the mid to lower lungs (Ghon focus)

5

In TB, what is a Ghon complex? A Ranke complex?

Ghon: walled off focus formed during primary TB in the mid/lower lungs, can reinfect

Ranke complex: Benign, calcified lesion, cannot reinfect

6

In addition to a sweat chloride test, what other test can be used to diagnose CF? How does it work?

Nasal transepithelial potential measures the negative epithelial surface charge of CF patients, due to decreased Cl- secretion by CFTR channel, leading to increased Na+ absorption

7

What neoplasm presents with necrolytic migratory erythema, DM, and anemia?

Glucagonoma

8

Deficiency of what mineral leads to erythematous skin lesions, hypogonadism, azoospermia, hair loss, impaired taste, night blindness, and impaired wound healing?

Zinc

9

What molecules to integrins interact with in cellular adhesion?

Fibronectins, collagen, laminin

10

What neoplasms present with von Hippel-Lindau disease?

1. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas
2. Clear cell renal carcinomas
3. Pheochromocytomas

11

What chromosome is associated with VHL?

Chromosome 3

12

Where does rT3 come from?

Inactive thyroid hormone generated by conversion from T4

13

What is dry Age-related Macular Degeneration (dry AMD)?

Subretinal drusen (yellow/white) deposits or pigment changes, causing gradual vision loss in one or both eyes. Tx with antioxidants and Zn

14

What is wet Age-related Macular Degeneration (wet AMD)?

Abnormal blood vessels (neovascularization) with subretinal fluid/hemorrhage or gray membrane. It's more common than dry AMD, acute vision loss in days to weeks. Tx with anti-VEGF

15

What factor causes retinal neovascularization in wet AMD?

VEGF

16

What cofactor is required by phenylalanine hydroxylase?

BH4

17

What bacteria has polar granules that stain with aniline dyes? (like methylene blue)

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

18

What cause of mental retardation shows CGG repeats?

Fragile X syndrome

19

What is a normal number of CGG repeats on the X chromoxomal FMR1 gene?

5-55

20

How many FMR-1 CGG repeats are in individuals with "full mutation" Fragile X syndrome?

200+

21

Hypermethylation of the FMR1 gene is seen in what disease?

Fragile X syndrome

22

Golden yellow or brown cytoplasmic granules could be what?

Lipfuscin or hemosiderin

23

What is Prussian blue stain?

Detects intracellular iron

24

What stain differentiates between two possible types of yellow/brown cytoplasmic granules?

Prussian blue stain for intracellular iron

25

What pathology is associated with hemosiderin laden macrophages in alveoli?

Left sided heart failure

26

What nerve mediates the gag reflex?

Glossopharyngeal

27

Painless lesions progressing to painful inguinal LAD and ulceration = ???

Chlamydia (serotypes L1-3) causing Lymphogranuloma Venereum

28

What second messenger system does Insulin use?

Tyrosine kinase

29

What second messenger system does PDGF use?

Tyrosine kinase

30

What second messenger system does sildenafil use?

cGMP

31

What second messenger system does NO use?

cGMP

32

How does Leptin decrease food intake?

In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus:
1. Decrease production of appetite stimulate, neuropeptide Y
2. Increase production of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), which forms alpha-MSH, which inhibits feeding

33

What combination of angina medications must be closely monitored for combined bradycardia and hypotention?

Beta blocker and non-DHP CCB

34

How to differentiate between PSGN and IgA nephropathy?

Hematuria post infection...
days ago = IgA nephropathy
weeks ago = PSGN

35

When giving glucose to alcoholics, supplement with what?

Thiamine

36

What type of inguinal hernia is more common old men?

Direct

37

What type of inguinal hernia is more common in male infants?

Indirect

38

What type of groin hernia is more common in women?

Femoral

39

What makes an H. influenzae strain "nontypable"?

No capsule

40

What type of H. influenzae can be vaccinated against?

type b

41

Sympathetic innervation of what two organs differ from the typical NE post-ganglionic release?

Sweat glands: ACh-M
Adrenals: ACh-N