Flashcards in 3/25 - UW 24 Deck (43):
In what circumstances is 2,3-BPG production increased?
In hypoxic conditions, e.g. chronic lung disease, heart failure, and high altitudes
Reye syndrome hepatolopathy shows what on light microscopy?
Microvesicular steatosis, NOT necrosis or inflammation
What is the clinical presentation of Reye syndrome?
Vomiting and hepatomegaly, rarely see jaundice. Elevated ALT, AST, ammonia, bili, PT and PTT
What light microscopy findings will you see in viral hepatitis?
Hepatocyte apoptosis, acinar necrosis, periportal mononuclear inflammatory infiltration
Mitochondrial defects tend to cause what sequelae?
Lactic acidosis, and defects in tissues with high metabolic rates, e.g. neural and muscular tissue
HIV+ mothers should be prophylaxed with what?
Nucleoside analog, Zidovudine (retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibitor)
When should reverse transcriptase inhibitor (Zidovudine) prophylaxis be started in an HIV+ pregnant woman?
14 wks gestation, continued throughout labor, with IV ZDV during labor, and oral ZDV to the infant for 6 wks.
Presence of multinucleated giant cells (Aschoff cells) in myocardium points to what pathology?
Acute rheumatic carditis
NFT-1 is a tumor of what cells?
What embryological cell type produces Schwann cells (neoplasms of which are neurofibromas, e.g. NFT-1)?
Neural crest cells
What are two common sites of ulnar nerve injury?
Posterior to the medial epicondyle, and between the hook of the hamate and the pisiform bone
What enzyme is deficient in Cori disease?
How does Cori disease present?
Hypoglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, ketoacidosis, hepatomegaly
Of all the mediators of allergic asthma, what are the two that have pharmacologic roles?
At what level does hypertriglyceridemia start to cause pancreatic acinar cell injury? How?
By direct cytotoxicity
What are some drugs that can cause acute pancreatitis?
What are some infections that cause acute pancreatitis?
What are the two most common causes of acute pancreatitis?
Alcohol and stones
What signaling pathway does GH use to activate IGF-1 release from the liver?
What clotting factors are missing in hemophilia A and B?
Hemophilia A: factor VIII
Hemophilia B: factor IX
What is urokinase? MOA?
Thrombolytic agent used for MI and PE
MOA: Converts plasminogen to plasmin (which degrades fibrinogen and fibrin)
Deficiency in fructokinase causes what benign condition?
Which neoplasm is associated with tumors of the "3Ps"?
MEN 1: anterior Pituitary, Parathyroids, Pancreas
What vessels does nitroglycerin work on?
How does nitroglycerin decrease angina?
Dilates large veins, decreasing preload, decreasing inotropy and cardiac oxygen demand
anti-CCP ab confirms what dx?
What are the "4Cs" of measles?
Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, Koplik spots
DiGeorge originates from maldevelopment of what embryologic structures?
3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches
What DM medication increases endogenous insulin secretion?
Sulfonylureas (e.g. glyburide),
What DM medications increase insulin sensitivity?
Metformin and rosiglitiazone
What DM medication decreases intestinal glucose absorption?
Acarbose (alpha glucosidase inhibitors)
What is the most common cause of Malignant Otitis Externa (MOE)?
What is the best alternative to aspirin in prevention of thromboembolic disease?
DM med, SGLT2 inhibitors (Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2), leading to glucosuria
What is D-xylose used for?
Monosaccharide, for testing small intestinal brush border absorptive function
What is pituitary apoplexy and how is it treated?
Acute hemorrhage into the pituitary gland, often from preexisting pituitary adnenomas. Neurosurg consult and GLUCOCORTICOIDS are the tx
What diuretic to give to reduce calciuria?
Gottron papules and heliotrope rash with proximal muscle weakess are specific for what pathology?
What are Gottron papules?
Red or violaceous, flat topped papules with light colored scale appearing over bony prominences, particularly the MCP, PIP, and DIPs
What is a heliotrope rash?
Erythematous or violaceous edematous eruption on the upper eyelids and periorbital skin
What autoantibodies are seen with dermatomyositis?
Anti-Jo1 (specific), anti-ANA (non-specific)
The ureteric bud gives rise to what renal structures?
Everything from the collecting tubules to the ureters.