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Flashcards in 3/25 - UW 24 Deck (43):
1

In what circumstances is 2,3-BPG production increased?

In hypoxic conditions, e.g. chronic lung disease, heart failure, and high altitudes

2

Reye syndrome hepatolopathy shows what on light microscopy?

Microvesicular steatosis, NOT necrosis or inflammation

3

What is the clinical presentation of Reye syndrome?

Vomiting and hepatomegaly, rarely see jaundice. Elevated ALT, AST, ammonia, bili, PT and PTT

4

What light microscopy findings will you see in viral hepatitis?

Hepatocyte apoptosis, acinar necrosis, periportal mononuclear inflammatory infiltration

5

Mitochondrial defects tend to cause what sequelae?

Lactic acidosis, and defects in tissues with high metabolic rates, e.g. neural and muscular tissue

6

HIV+ mothers should be prophylaxed with what?

Nucleoside analog, Zidovudine (retroviral reverse transcriptase inhibitor)

7

When should reverse transcriptase inhibitor (Zidovudine) prophylaxis be started in an HIV+ pregnant woman?

14 wks gestation, continued throughout labor, with IV ZDV during labor, and oral ZDV to the infant for 6 wks.

8

Presence of multinucleated giant cells (Aschoff cells) in myocardium points to what pathology?

Acute rheumatic carditis

9

NFT-1 is a tumor of what cells?

Schwann cells

10

What embryological cell type produces Schwann cells (neoplasms of which are neurofibromas, e.g. NFT-1)?

Neural crest cells

11

What are two common sites of ulnar nerve injury?

Posterior to the medial epicondyle, and between the hook of the hamate and the pisiform bone

12

What enzyme is deficient in Cori disease?

Debranching enzyme

13

How does Cori disease present?

Hypoglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, ketoacidosis, hepatomegaly

14

Of all the mediators of allergic asthma, what are the two that have pharmacologic roles?

Leukotrienes, ACh

15

At what level does hypertriglyceridemia start to cause pancreatic acinar cell injury? How?

>1000 mg/dL
By direct cytotoxicity

16

What are some drugs that can cause acute pancreatitis?

Azathioprine
Sulfasalazine
Furosemide
Valproic acid

17

What are some infections that cause acute pancreatitis?

Mumps
Coxsackie virus
Mycoplasma pneumoniae

18

What are the two most common causes of acute pancreatitis?

Alcohol and stones

19

What signaling pathway does GH use to activate IGF-1 release from the liver?

JAK-STAT

20

What clotting factors are missing in hemophilia A and B?

Hemophilia A: factor VIII
Hemophilia B: factor IX

21

What is urokinase? MOA?

Thrombolytic agent used for MI and PE
MOA: Converts plasminogen to plasmin (which degrades fibrinogen and fibrin)

22

Deficiency in fructokinase causes what benign condition?

Essential fructosuria

23

Which neoplasm is associated with tumors of the "3Ps"?

MEN 1: anterior Pituitary, Parathyroids, Pancreas

24

What vessels does nitroglycerin work on?

Large veins

25

How does nitroglycerin decrease angina?

Dilates large veins, decreasing preload, decreasing inotropy and cardiac oxygen demand

26

anti-CCP ab confirms what dx?

RA

27

What are the "4Cs" of measles?

Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, Koplik spots

28

DiGeorge originates from maldevelopment of what embryologic structures?

3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches

29

What DM medication increases endogenous insulin secretion?

Sulfonylureas (e.g. glyburide),

30

What DM medications increase insulin sensitivity?

Metformin and rosiglitiazone

31

What DM medication decreases intestinal glucose absorption?

Acarbose (alpha glucosidase inhibitors)

32

What is the most common cause of Malignant Otitis Externa (MOE)?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

33

What is the best alternative to aspirin in prevention of thromboembolic disease?

Clopidogrel

34

Canagliflozin MOA?

DM med, SGLT2 inhibitors (Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2), leading to glucosuria

35

What is D-xylose used for?

Monosaccharide, for testing small intestinal brush border absorptive function

36

What is pituitary apoplexy and how is it treated?

Acute hemorrhage into the pituitary gland, often from preexisting pituitary adnenomas. Neurosurg consult and GLUCOCORTICOIDS are the tx

37

What diuretic to give to reduce calciuria?

HCTZ

38

Gottron papules and heliotrope rash with proximal muscle weakess are specific for what pathology?

Dermatomyositis

39

What are Gottron papules?

Red or violaceous, flat topped papules with light colored scale appearing over bony prominences, particularly the MCP, PIP, and DIPs

40

What is a heliotrope rash?

Erythematous or violaceous edematous eruption on the upper eyelids and periorbital skin

41

What autoantibodies are seen with dermatomyositis?

Anti-Jo1 (specific), anti-ANA (non-specific)

42

The ureteric bud gives rise to what renal structures?

Everything from the collecting tubules to the ureters.

43

The metanephric mesoderm (blastema) gives rise to what renal structures?

Glomeruli to DCT