4/2 - UW 40 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4/2 - UW 40 Deck (27):
1

Why might you not take nitrates at night?

Decrease tolerance development

2

How do tumor cells often resist chemotherapy?

Active transport (eg MDR1 gene produces P-glycoprotein, normally in intestinal and renal tubular epithelial cells and capillary endothelium of BBB.)

3

Development of secondary sexual characteristics below what age in Caucasian girls is considered Precocious Puberty?

< 7 yo

4

What organ can commonly be damaged by abdominal trauma, causing retroperitoneal hematoma?

Pancreas

5

How do alpha-glucosidease inhibitors control blood sugar? What are they?

Decrease activity of disaccharidases on the brush border. Acarbose and miglitol.

6

Aside from allopurinol, what is another drug that can be used to prevent hyperuricemia (ie in tumor lysis syndrome)?

Rasburicase

7

What is released in tumor lysis syndrome? Sequelae?

Potassium, phosphorous, nucleic acids.

Potassium: arrhythmias
Nucleic acids: metabolized to uric acid, causing obstructive uropathy and ARF

8

Accumulation of what molecule causes pigment deposition in Alkaptonuria?

Homogentisic acid

9

In what disorder does urine turn black when exposed to room air?

Alkaptonuria (AR, benign disorder)

10

What is the most important environmental risk factor for pancreatic cancer?

Smoking

11

What animal carries Schistosoma?

Freshwater snail (incubate infectious larvae)

12

Which Schistosoma species migrates to the intestine (mesenteric venules)?

S. japonicum and S. mansoni

13

Which Schistosoma species migrates to the venous plexus of the urinary bladder?

S. haematobium

14

What cells mediate the clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis?

Th2 mediated granulomatous response (Th2 cells, eosinophils, M2 macrophages) against the eggs

15

The dog tapeworm (Echinococcus granulosus) is the most common causes of what?

Hydatid cysts

16

Which tapeworm can cause vit B12 def? What animal transmits it?

Diphyllobothrium latum, from raw freshwater fish

17

Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is a major risk factor for what lung pathology?

ARDS (injury to pulmonary microvascular endothelium or alveolar epithelium cause alveoli to become lined with HYALINE)

18

In what lung pathology do you see destruction of interalveolar septae?

Emphysema

19

Abrupt onset of gross hematuria with FH of Sickle Cell suggests what pathology?

Renal Papillary Necrosis

20

What conditions are most strongly associated with renal papillary necrosis?

- Sickle cell
- Analgesic nephropathy (esp phenacetin, withdrawn from US)
- DM
- Acute pyelonephritis and urinary tract obstruction

21

What drug requires activation by mycobacterial catalase peroxidase to be active?

Isoniazid

22

What abx act on 50S?

Chloramphenicol, clindamycin, linezolid, macrolides

23

What abx act on 30S?

Tetracycline, doxycycline, aminoglycosides

24

What precipitates the fibrinous or serofribrinous pericarditis that develops 2-4 post-MI?

Transmural necrosis

25

Over three months use of appetite suppressants (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, phentermine) can cause what?

Secondary pulmonary HTN

26

What cells produce Mullerian Inhibiting Factor?

Sertoli

27

What is a common side effect of TZDs?

Weight gain, edema, precipitation/exacerbation of CHF