4/3 - UW 43 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4/3 - UW 43 Deck (55)
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1

What process mediates the exopthalmos seen in Grave's disease?

Lymphocytic infiltrates in the extraocular tissue causes edema and activates retro-orbital fibroblasts to produce glycosaminoglycans, pushing out the eye.

2

Diffuse injury to the lung vascular endothelium and/or alveolar epithelium that is NOT from cardiogenic causes characterizes what syndrome?

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

3

Nyctalopia (night blindness) and dry skin suggest deficiency of what vitamin?

Vit. A

4

A strict vegetarian diet predisposes to deficiency of what vitamin?

B12, cobalamin

5

Mucocutaneous bleeding (epistaxis, petechiae) suggests what?

Platelet defect

6

Deep tissue bleeding into joints, muscles, and subcutaneous tissue suggests what?

Coagulopathies

7

What vitamin is an essential component of NAD and NADP?

Niacin

8

What AA is a precursor to endogenous production of niacin?

Tryptophan

9

What is Arginine a precursor to?

NO, urea, ornithine, agmatine, creatine

10

What is Orotic acid a precursor for?

Pyrimidine

11

What is the precursor for Creatine?

Arginine

12

What is the precursor for Pyrimidine?

Orotic acid

13

What two variables should be checked in working up a metabolic alkalosis?

Volume Status
Urine Chloride

14

What are the most common causes of metabolic alkalosis?

1. Loss of HCl (low urine Cl, correct w saline)
2. Thiazide or Loop Diuretics (high urine Cl, correct w saline)
3. Mineralocorticoid excess (high aldosterone OR cortisol, high urine Cl, NOT corrected by saline)

15

Why does vomiting-induced metabolic alkalosis have low urine Cl?

Loss of HCl through vomiting. Low Cl decreases renal Cl excretion, which decreases HCO3 excretion, worsening the alkalosis

16

Calcification or aneurysm of what vessel would lead to a unilateral nasal hemianopia?

Internal carotid, which would impinge on uncrossed, lateral retinal fibers

17

Where would a lesion be to cause a "pie in the sky" lesion?

Contralateral temporal lobe (Meyer's loop)

18

Where would a lesion be to cause a "pie on the floor" lesion?

Contralateral parietal lobe (dorsal optic radiation)

19

What is the name of the process that marks a protein for degradation?

Ubiquitination

20

What are the 3 genes that help promote protein degradation, and mutations can lead to Parkinson?

Parkin
PINK1
DJ-1

21

Which one has more transcriptional activity, heterochromatin or euchromatin?

Euchromatin (loosely arranged chromatin), formation is promoted by histone acetylation

22

What is the transporter for glucose into pancreatic beta cells?

GLUT 2

23

What molecule affects the opening/closure of potassium channels in pancreatic beta cells?

ATP closes it (produced from glycolysis of glucose, pumped in by GLUT2)

24

What happens after ATP closes the potassium channels in pancreatic beta cells?

Cell membrane depolarizes, opening Ca channels. Ca influx leads to insulin release

25

What enzyme forms the covalent cross links between collagen fibrils?

Lysyl oxidase

26

What congenital syndrome is associated with cleft palate and polydactyly?

Patau syndrome (trisomy 13)

27

What congenital syndrome is associated with macroorchidism and a long face?

Fragile X syndrome

28

What 2 drugs can be used in lieu of exercise to test exercise-induced ischemia?

Adenosine and Dipyridamole (both selectively vasodilate coronary vessels)

29

What congenital syndrome is associated with endocardial cushion defects?

Down syndrome

30

What serious side effect can result from using Ticlodipine?

Neutropenia