4/5 - UW 47 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 4/5 - UW 47 Deck (26):
1

What does 99mmTc-pertechnetate scan detect?

Gastric mucosa

2

What is the syndrome with N. meningitidis septicemia with adrenal hemorrhage?

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome

3

HTN in pregnancy, consider what??

Pre-eclampsia! HTN, proteinuria, edema

4

What is neurophysin?

Carrier protein for oxytocin and ADH from hypothalamus to PP

5

What protein is the central regulator of iron homeostasis? What organ produces it?

Hepcidin, from the liver. Iron increases its production, which downregulates ferroportin

6

How does Hepcidin regulate iron levels?

It binds to Ferroportin on macrophages and enterocytes, causing it to be internalized and degraded.

7

What defect gives disproportionate short stature? (short, thick long bones in appendicular skeleton, normal axial length)

Achondroplastic dwarfism (mutation in Fibroblast Growth Factor receptor inhibits epiphyseal growth)

8

When can you see proportional short stature? (axial and appendicular skeleton are proportionate)

GH/IGF-1 deficiency

9

What sort of cardiac response would you see to a PE?

Decreased blood delivered to L side = decreased CO and compensatory tachycardia

10

What is Samter's triad?

Asthma
Aspirin hypersensitivity
Nasal polyposis

11

Very high dose ASA causes what sx?

Salicylism:
Vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss

Respiratory stimulation: hyperpnea (thus resp alk, and metab acid from salicylate accumulation)

12

Sudden onset focal numbness and tingling that fully resolves within minutes is suggestive of what pathology? Best tx?

TIA, treat w low dose ASA

13

Why is a dexamethasone suppression test effective in differentiating between pituitary and ectopic ACTH secretion?

Pituitary ACTH hypersecretion is only partially resistent to glucocorticoid feedback: will respond to dexa

Ectopic ATCH is completely resistant to feedback: will NOT respond to dexa

14

What is the approximate volume of water in:
Total body
ECF
Plasma

TBW: ~40L
ECF: ~15L (1/3 of TBW)
Plasma: ~3L (1/5 of ECF)

15

In what direction does hepatic encephalopathy affect inhibitory and excitatory NT release?

Inhibitory: increased
Excitatory: decreased

16

How does lactulose treat hepatic encephalopathy?

Bacterial metabolism of lactulose acidifies the colon, trapping ammonium ions in the gut to be excreted

17

What are some precipitating factors of hepatic encephalopathy?

Drugs (sedatives, narcotics)
Hypovolemia
Excess nitrogen load (GI bleeding, constipation)
Infections

18

What type of nephropathy shows Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules?

Diabetic (Nodular) Nephropathy

19

What type of nephropathy shows "tram tracks"?

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (IC deposits, associated with heptatis)

20

What type of nephropathy is associated with HIV, heroin, and obesity?

FSGS

21

What is the most likely outcome for HBV infection? HCV?

HBV: Complete resolution
HCV: Stable chronic hepatitis

22

What type of gastric mucosal defect extends into the submucosa? Which type stops at the muscularis mucosa?

ULCERS extend into the submucosal layer and the muscularis propria
EROSIONS do not penetrate past the muscularis mucosa

23

Acute obstruction of small airways in infants is usually due to what infection?

RSV (treat with RIBavirin)

24

What mutation is associated with Polycythemia Vera?

V617F involving the JAK2 gene, making hematopoietic cells more sensitive to growth factors

25

What is an important side effect of Risperidone (anti-psychotic)?

Hyperprolactinemia, due to anti-DAergic properties

26

What neuromuscular blocking agent can cause hyperkalemia?

Succinylcholine, in patients with burns, myopathies, crush injuries, and denervation