Flashcards in 4/5 - UW 48 Deck (47):
How is influenza infx PREVENTED?
Ab against hemagglutinin
What pancreatic cells secrete somatostatin?
Since somatostatin decreases release of both glucagon and insulin, is the result a hypo or hyperglycemia?
Somatostatin INHIBITION of INSULIN > glucagon, so hyperglycemia results
What enzyme stimulates gallbladder emptying?
What enzyme stimulates release of pancreatic bicarb?
What neoplasms are associated with type B (antral) gastritis?
Attempted ligation of what artery could result in damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve?
Inferior thyroid artery
What nerve courses with the superior thyroid artery? Inferior?
Superior: external laryngeal nerve
Inferior: recurrent laryngeal nerve
Accumulation of sphingomyelin in splenic cells is seen in what disease?
Accumulation of glucocerebrosides in splenic cells is seen in what disease?
Which type of muscle fiber is slow twitch? Fast?
Slow: type I
Fast: type II
What is the difference between type IIa and IIb muscle fibers?
IIa: ATP via aerobic metabolism, but still fast twitch
IIb: ATP via glycolysis, also fast twitch
What hormone is produced by the supraoptic nuclei?
What hormone is produced by the paraventricular nuclei?
Where is ADH is produced?
Supraoptic nuclei in the hypothalamus, secreted by the posterior pituitary
Where is oxytocin produced?
Paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus
Which hypothalamic nuclei HEAT you up, and which ones COOL you down?
HEAT: POSTERIOR nuclei regulate heat conservation and production
COLD: ANTERIOR nuclei regulate vasodilation and sweating
What virus causes acute gingivostomatitis?
What is the preferred medication for treating gestational DM?
Insulin (NOT metformin)
Which HBV antibody is present during the "window period"?
Window period = both HBsAg and anti-HBs are absent
A lung hamartoma is also called what?
What is a hamartoma?
Excessive growth of a tissue type that is NATIVE to the organ
What tissues types are in lung hamartomas?
Hyaline cartilage, fat, smooth muscle, respiratory epithelium
What is suggested by a solitary "coin lesion" in the peripheral lung?
Hamartoma, benign and generally asymptomatic
What does a "Sister Mary Joseph" nodule indicate?
Metastatic gastric carcinoma
What coagulation factors are contained in cryoprecipitate?
Cold soluble proteins:
What do you call RBC extravasation into the skin or subq tissue of the following sizes:
These do NOT blanch because the RBCs are extravascular
What are lentigos?
What are telangiectasias?
small, focal, permanent dilations of superficial capillaries and venules. They do blanch.
Persistent deficit to memory and learning (Korsakoff syndrome) after treatment of thiamine deficiency is due to damage to which nuclei?
Anterior and Dorsomedial thalamic nuclei
"Confabulation" is present
Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome is from deficiency of what vitamin?
What cells have BRAF?
What is the mutation seen in many melanomas?
BRAF V600E mutation
What does Vemurafenib inhibit?
Mutated BRAF (protein kinase) in melanocytes
What are the 3 terms that refer to the lack of upper vagina development (short vagina) with variable uterine development?
Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome
What parts of the female sexual anatomy comes from the Mullerian ducts?
Fallopian tubes to the upper vagina
(NOT the ovaries, or lower vagina)
Rupture of the middle meningeal artery causes what type of hemorrhage?
Epidural (arterial, more pressure, more sudden; lucid interval)
Rupture of what vessels can cause a subdural hematoma?
Bridging cortical veins (slow bleed, insidious onset)
What is a PrP?
Prion Protein, as in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
What type of transformation is seen in the gray matter in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease?
Spongiform change in the gray matter due to prion accumulation
What is Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome?
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, presenting with recurrent severe epistaxis and telangiectasias of the skin and mucosa
What is Von Recklinghausen's disease?
NF1 (peripheral nervous system tumor presenting with neurofibromas, optic nerve gliomas, Lisch nodules, and cafe au lait spots)
What do patients with NF2 present with?
Bilateral CN VIII schwannomas and multiple meningiomas
Schwannomas and meningiomas in a patient probably means they have what disease?
Skull radiographs showing "tram-track" calcifications is characteristic of what syndrome?
Sturge-Weber syndrome (encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis)
What is the clinical presentation of the "maintenance" phase of ATN?
(24-36 hrs after initiation phase)
1. increased ECF: edema, pulm congestion
2. HyperK (peaked T waves when K is >6)
3. High AGMA
4. HypO: Na, Ca
5. HypER: phosphate, Mg
6. Muddy brown casts!!!!!