Flashcards in 3/29 - UW 31 Deck (55)
How does long term use of systemic steroids lead to osteoporosis?
Decreased synthesis of bone matrix
Inhibition of intestinal action of vit D
What causes nipple inversion and skin retraction/dimpling in invasive breast carcinoma?
Invasion of the central region of the breast, and infiltration of the suspensory Cooper ligaments
What is "peau d'orange" in breast cancer?
Orange peel appearance, due to tumor blockage of the lymphatic drainage, causing lymphedema, pitting, and thickening of the skin
What is the difference in duration between acute stress disorder and PTSD?
Acute stress disorder: 3d - 1mo
PTSD: > 1mo
What are the most common organisms that cause necrotizing fasciitis?
What organisms are positive for the PYR (like bacitracin) test?
Group A and D streptococcus
What enzyme and reaction does Methimazole inhibit?
Thyroid peroxidase, organification and coupling of iodotyrosines, to treat hypERthyroidism
What is the clinical presentation of primary biliary cirrhosis?
Early: Pruritus, esp severe at night
Fatigue is common. HSM and evidence of cholestasis (xanthelasma, pale stool)
Late: jaundice, steatorrhea, portal HTN, osteopenia
What disease presents as a Male with a long history of UC, with fatigue and a high alk phos?
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
What are the histologic findings of primary biliary cirrhosis?
Destruction of interlobular bile ducts by granulomatous inflammation (florid duct lesion) and heavy portal tract infiltrate of WBCs
What disease presents as an Older Female with weight loss, abd discomfort, jaundice, and epigastric mass?
What nerve can be damaged in a thyroidectomy?
Superior laryngeal, which innervates ONLY the cricothyroid muscle
Aside from the cricothyroid muscle, what nerve are the laryngeal muscles innervated by?
Recurrent laryngeal (also sensory innervation to the larynx below the vocal folds)
What nerves provide sensory innervation to the larynx above and below the vocal folds?
Above: Internal branch of the Superior laryngeal nerve
Below: Recurrent laryngeal
What IL are secreted by Th2 cells?
IL 4, 5, 10, 13
Which IL stimulates Th0 to differentiate into Th1? Th2?
Th1: IL-12 from macrophages
Th2: IL-4 from other APCs
In the absence of IL-12, what cytokine should be administered to make up for the lack of Th1 differentiation?
IFN-y, to activate macrophages
Clinical features of melanoma? (ABCDE)
Diameter > 6mm
Evolution in appearance
What is the embryological origin of melanocytes?
What are the derivatives of surface ectoderm?
Epidermis (and its appendages), mammary glands, lens of the eye, and the adenohypophysis
What are the derivatives of the neuroectoderm?
CNS, preganglionic autonomic neurons, retina, and posterior pituitary
What wrist bone is under the thumb?
What is the most common enzyme deficiency that causes CAH?
21 hydroxylase def
What inheritance is CAH?
What are the sx of vit A def?
Night blindness, xeropthalmia, vulnerability to infx (esp measles)
What are the sx of vit B1 (thiamine) def?
Infantile beriberi: cardiomegaly, tachycardia, cyanosis, dyspnea, vomiting
Adult dry beriberi: symmetrical peripheral neuropathy, esp in distal extremities
Adult wet beriberi: dry sx + cardiac involvement
Wernicke-Korsakoff in alcoholics
What are the sx of vit B2 (riboflavin) def?
Cheilosis, stomatitis, glossitis, dermatitis, corneal vascularization, ariboflavinosis
What are the sx of vit B6 (pyridoxine) def?
Cheilosis, glossitis, dermatitis, peripheral neuropathy
Def of what vit causes pellagra?