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Flashcards in 3/29 - UW 31 Deck (55)
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1

How does long term use of systemic steroids lead to osteoporosis?

Decreased synthesis of bone matrix
Inhibition of intestinal action of vit D
Increased PTH

2

What causes nipple inversion and skin retraction/dimpling in invasive breast carcinoma?

Invasion of the central region of the breast, and infiltration of the suspensory Cooper ligaments

3

What is "peau d'orange" in breast cancer?

Orange peel appearance, due to tumor blockage of the lymphatic drainage, causing lymphedema, pitting, and thickening of the skin

4

What is the difference in duration between acute stress disorder and PTSD?

Acute stress disorder: 3d - 1mo

PTSD: > 1mo

5

What are the most common organisms that cause necrotizing fasciitis?

Strep pyo
Staph aureus
C. perfringens

6

What organisms are positive for the PYR (like bacitracin) test?

Group A and D streptococcus

7

What enzyme and reaction does Methimazole inhibit?

Thyroid peroxidase, organification and coupling of iodotyrosines, to treat hypERthyroidism

8

What is the clinical presentation of primary biliary cirrhosis?

Early: Pruritus, esp severe at night

Fatigue is common. HSM and evidence of cholestasis (xanthelasma, pale stool)

Late: jaundice, steatorrhea, portal HTN, osteopenia

9

What disease presents as a Male with a long history of UC, with fatigue and a high alk phos?

Primary sclerosing cholangitis

10

What are the histologic findings of primary biliary cirrhosis?

Destruction of interlobular bile ducts by granulomatous inflammation (florid duct lesion) and heavy portal tract infiltrate of WBCs

11

What disease presents as an Older Female with weight loss, abd discomfort, jaundice, and epigastric mass?

Pancreatic cancer

12

What nerve can be damaged in a thyroidectomy?

Superior laryngeal, which innervates ONLY the cricothyroid muscle

13

Aside from the cricothyroid muscle, what nerve are the laryngeal muscles innervated by?

Recurrent laryngeal (also sensory innervation to the larynx below the vocal folds)

14

What nerves provide sensory innervation to the larynx above and below the vocal folds?

Above: Internal branch of the Superior laryngeal nerve

Below: Recurrent laryngeal

15

What IL are secreted by Th2 cells?

IL 4, 5, 10, 13

16

Which IL stimulates Th0 to differentiate into Th1? Th2?

Th1: IL-12 from macrophages
Th2: IL-4 from other APCs

17

In the absence of IL-12, what cytokine should be administered to make up for the lack of Th1 differentiation?

IFN-y, to activate macrophages

18

Clinical features of melanoma? (ABCDE)

Asymmetry
Border irregularity
Color variation
Diameter > 6mm
Evolution in appearance

19

What is the embryological origin of melanocytes?

Neural crest

20

What are the derivatives of surface ectoderm?

Epidermis (and its appendages), mammary glands, lens of the eye, and the adenohypophysis

21

What are the derivatives of the neuroectoderm?

CNS, preganglionic autonomic neurons, retina, and posterior pituitary

22

What wrist bone is under the thumb?

Trapezium

23

What is the most common enzyme deficiency that causes CAH?

21 hydroxylase def

24

What inheritance is CAH?

AR

25

What are the sx of vit A def?

Night blindness, xeropthalmia, vulnerability to infx (esp measles)

26

What are the sx of vit B1 (thiamine) def?

Infantile beriberi: cardiomegaly, tachycardia, cyanosis, dyspnea, vomiting

Adult dry beriberi: symmetrical peripheral neuropathy, esp in distal extremities
Adult wet beriberi: dry sx + cardiac involvement

Wernicke-Korsakoff in alcoholics

27

What are the sx of vit B2 (riboflavin) def?

Cheilosis, stomatitis, glossitis, dermatitis, corneal vascularization, ariboflavinosis

28

What are the sx of vit B6 (pyridoxine) def?

Cheilosis, glossitis, dermatitis, peripheral neuropathy

29

Def of what vit causes pellagra?

Niacin

30

What are the sx of infant hydrocephalus?

Macrocephaly, irritability, poor feeding, muscle hypertonicity and hyperreflexia (UMN damage)