Crescent shaped Bowman's capsule?
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
RPGN crescents consist of what cells? What substance?
Glomerular parietal cells Monocytes Macrophages Fibrin
What type of valvular insufficiency is characterized by a holosystolic murmur?
Mitral regurgitation (MR)
What pathology is associated with an S3 heart sound?
Increased LV filling during diastole... Associated with MR, CHF
What pathology is associated with an S4 heart sound?
"Atrial kick", high atrial pressure, stiff LV wall... Associated with LVH
Atopic dermatitis usually spares which area of the skin?
In older children, atopic dermatitis manifests as lichenification in what dermatologic distribution?
Flexural: neck wrists antecubital fossa popliteal fossa
What three symptoms are included in the "allergic triad"?
Atopic dermatitis (eczema) Allergic rhinitis Asthma
What dermatologic pathology is associated with Gluten enteropathy?
What decades of life are associated with dermatitis herpetiformis?
4th and 5th, uncommon in children
What neural sx and organism are associated with Guillain-Barre?
Neural: ascending paralysis post febrile illness Organism: Campylobacter jejuni
Toxin penetration through blood nerve barrier leading to peripheral neuropathy is associated with which organism?
What brain structure is affected in Huntington's disease?
Type of epithelium in the following organs: Ovaries Fallopian tubes Uterus Cervix Vagina
Ovaries: simple cuboidal Fallopian tubes: simple columnar Uterus: simple (pseudostratified) columnar Cervix: simple columnar and stratified squamous Vagina: stratified squamous
What are the antiarrhythmic agents that can cause torsades de pointes?
Class IA: Quinidine Procainamide Disopyramide Class III: Ibutilide Dofetilide Sotalol
PAS positive globules in hepatocytes indicates deficiency of what?
Alpha 1 antitrypsin
Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency will lead to what lung pathology?
Interalveolar septa destruction
Brown (not black) pigment stones are typically secondary to infection by which organisms?
E. coli Ascaris lumbricoides Opisthorchis sinensis
Organisms in which genus lacks peptidoglycan cell walls?
Mycoplasma Cannot use cell wall synthesis inhibitors (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, vancomycin) Can use antiribosomal agents (macrolides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones)
What to give to improve bladder emptying? Mechanism?
Bethanechol Muscarinic agonist stimulates detrussor muscle
Mechanism of finasteride? Uses?
5alpha reductase inhibitor Treats BPH, male baldness
What is honey often contaminated with?
What topical antifungal should be used for thrush in immunocompetent patients?
Purulent urethritis from N. gonorrhoeae and/or C. trachomatis must be treated with what?
BOTH: 3rd gen ceph (ceftriaxone) for gonorrhea Tetracycline/Macrolide (doxy or azithro) for chlamydia
Insecticide is associated with what poisoning?
Arsenic poisoning is associated with what odor on breath?
Drug of choice for arsenic poisoning?
Dimercaprol (It has narrow therapeutic index, causes nephrotoxicity and HTN)
Neuraminidase inhibitor, prevents virus release (aka Tamiflu, for influenze A and B)
What are the arginine derivatives?
Urea NO Creatine
"Owl's eyes" refer to what cells? What pathology are they associated with?
Reed Sternberg cells (giant binucleated cell) associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma
Demyelinated plaques are associated with what disease?
What lab test for monitoring diabetic nephropathy?