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Flashcards in First Aid Rapid Review Flash Deck (448)
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1

Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly. Disease/Dx?

Budd-Chiari syndrome (posthepatic venous thrombosis)

2

Achilles tendon xanthoma. Disease/Dx?

Familial hypercholesterolemia (dec LDL receptor signaling)

3

Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, DIC. Disease/Dx?

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (meningococcemia)

4

Anterior "drawer sign" (+). Disease/Dx?

Anterior cruciate ligament injury

5

Arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints. Disease/Dx?

Marfan syndrome (fibrillin defect)

6

Athlete with polycythemia. Disease/Dx?

2° to erythropoietin injection

7

Back pain, fever, night sweats, weight loss. Disease/Dx?

Pott disease (vertebral TB)

8

Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis. Disease/Dx?

Sarcoidosis (noncaseating granulomas)

9

Blue sclera. Disease/Dx?

Osteogenesis imperfecta (type I collagen defect)

10

Bluish line on gingiva. Disease/Dx?

Burton line (lead poisoning)

11

Bone pain, bone enlargement, arthritis. Disease/Dx?

Paget disease of bone (inc osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity)

12

Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing. Disease/Dx?

Aortic regurgitation

13

Butterfly facial rash and Raynaud phenomenon in a young female. Disease/Dx?

Systemic lupus erythematosus

14

Café-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hamartoma). Disease/Dx?

Neurofibromatosis type I (+ pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas)

15

Café-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, multiple endocrine abnormalities. Disease/Dx?

McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein signaling mutation)

16

Calf pseudohypertrophy. Disease/Dx?

Muscular dystrophy (most commonly Duchenne): X-linked recessive deletion of dystrophin gene

17

Cherry-red spots on macula. Disease/Dx?

Tay-Sachs (ganglioside accumulation) or Niemann-Pick (sphingomyelin accumulation), central retinal artery occlusion

18

Chest pain on exertion. Disease/Dx?

Angina (stable: with moderate exertion; unstable: with minimal exertion)

19

Chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rub, persistent fever following MI. Disease/Dx?

Dressler syndrome (autoimmune-mediated post-MI fibrinous pericarditis, 1-12 weeks after acute episode)

20

Child uses arms to stand up from squat. Disease/Dx?

Gowers sign (Duchenne muscular dystrophy)

21

Child with fever later develops red rash on face that spreads to body. Disease/Dx?

Slapped cheeks (erythema infectiosum/fifth disease: parvovirus B19)

22

Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration. Disease/Dx?

Huntington disease (autosomal dominant CAG repeat expansion)

23

Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps, myoglobinuria. Disease/Dx?

McArdle disease (muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency)

24

Cold intolerance. Disease/Dx?

Hypothyroidism

25

Conjugate lateral gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia. Disease/Dx?

Internuclear ophthalmoplegia (damage to MLF; bilateral [multiple sclerosis], unilateral [stroke])

26

Continuous "machine-like" heart murmur. Disease/Dx?

PDA (close with indomethacin; open or maintain with misoprostol)

27

Cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition. Disease/Dx?

Myxedema (caused by hypothyroidism, Graves disease [pretibial])

28

Dark purple skin/mouth nodules in a patient with AIDS. Disease/Dx?

Kaposi sarcoma, associated with HHV-8

29

Deep, labored breathing/hyperventilation. Disease/Dx?

Kussmaul respirations (diabetic ketoacidosis)

30

Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea. Disease/Dx?

Pellagra (niacin [vitamin B3] deficiency)

31

Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, alcoholism or malnutrition. Disease/Dx?

Wet beriberi (thiamine [vitamin B1] deficiency)

32

Dog or cat bite resulting in infection. Disease/Dx?

Pasteurella multocida (cellulitis at inoculation site)

33

Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritis. Disease/Dx?

Sjögren syndrome (autoimmune destruction of exocrine glands)

34

Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency anemia. Disease/Dx?

Plummer-Vinson syndrome (may progress to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma)

35

Elastic skin, hypermobility of joints. Disease/Dx?

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (type III collagen defect)

36

Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node. Disease/Dx?

Virchow node (abdominal metastasis)

37

Erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells. Disease/Dx?

Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) or Sézary syndrome (mycosis fungoides + malignant T cells in blood)

38

Facial muscle spasm upon tapping. Disease/Dx?

Chvostek sign (hypocalcemia)

39

Fat, female, forty, and fertile. Disease/Dx?

Cholelithiasis (gallstones)

40

Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis. Disease/Dx?

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (rapid lysis of spirochetes results in toxin release)

41

Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash. Disease/Dx?

Measles

42

Fever, night sweats, weight loss. Disease/Dx?

B symptoms (staging) of lymphoma

43

Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis. Disease/Dx?

Peyronie disease (connective tissue disorder)

44

Gout, intellectual disability, self-mutilating behavior in a boy. Disease/Dx?

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (HGPRT deficiency, X-linked recessive)

45

Green-yellow rings around peripheral cornea. Disease/Dx?

Kayser-Fleischer rings (copper accumulation from Wilson disease)

46

Hamartomatous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth/feet/hands. Disease/Dx?

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (inherited, benign polyposis can cause bowel obstruction; inc cancer risk, mainly GI)

47

Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms. Disease/Dx?

Gaucher disease (glucocerebrosidase deficiency)

48

Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts. Disease/Dx?

Alport syndrome (mutation in collagen IV)

49

Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility. Disease/Dx?

Klüver-Bucy syndrome (bilateral amygdala lesion)

50

Hyperreflexia, hypertonia, Babinski sign present. Disease/Dx?

UMN damage

51

Hyporeflexia, hypotonia, atrophy, fasciculations. Disease/Dx?

LMN damage

52

Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia. Disease/Dx?

Blue bloater (chronic bronchitis: hyperplasia of mucous cells)

53

Indurated, ulcerated genital lesion. Disease/Dx?

Nonpainful: chancre (1° syphilis, Treponema pallidum) Painful, with exudate: chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

54

Infant with cleft lip/palate, microcephaly or holoprosencephaly, polydactyly, cutis aplasia. Disease/Dx?

Patau syndrome (trisomy 13)

55

Infant with failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, and neurodegeneration. Disease/Dx?

Niemann-Pick disease (genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency)

56

Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, and hepatomegaly. Disease/Dx?

Cori disease (debranching enzyme deficiency) or Von Gierke disease (glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency, more severe)

57

Infant with microcephaly, rocker-bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect. Disease/Dx?

Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18)

58

Jaundice, palpable distended non-tender gallbladder. Disease/Dx?

Courvoisier sign (distal obstruction of biliary tree)

59

Large rash with bull's-eye appearance. Disease/Dx?

Erythema chronicum migrans from Ixodes tick bite (Lyme disease: Borrelia)

60

Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury. Disease/Dx?

Epidural hematoma (middle meningeal artery rupture)

61

Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells. Disease/Dx?

Bruton disease (X-linked agammaglobulinemia)

62

Mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time. Disease/Dx?

Glanzmann thrombasthenia (defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GpIIb/IIIa)

63

Muffled heart sounds, distended neck veins, hypotension. Disease/Dx?

Beck triad of cardiac tamponade

64

Multiple colon polyps, osteomas/soft tissue tumors, impacted/ supernumerary teeth. Disease/Dx?

Gardner syndrome (subtype of FAP)

65

Myopathy (infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), exercise intolerance. Disease/Dx?

Pompe disease (lysosomal α-1,4-glucosidase deficiency)

66

Neonate with arm paralysis following difficult birth. Disease/Dx?

Erb-Duchenne palsy (superior trunk [C5-C6] brachial plexus injury: "waiter's tip")

67

No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance. Disease/Dx?

Sheehan syndrome (pituitary infarction)

68

Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Disease/Dx?

Multiple sclerosis

69

Oscillating slow/fast breathing. Disease/Dx?

Cheyne-Stokes respirations (central apnea in CHF or inc intracranial pressure)

70

Painful blue fingers/toes, hemolytic anemia. Disease/Dx?

Cold agglutinin disease (autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis)

71

Painful, pale, cold fingers/toes. Disease/Dx?

Raynaud phenomenon (vasospasm in extremities)

72

Painful, raised red lesions on pad of fingers/toes. Disease/Dx?

Osler nodes (infective endocarditis, immune complex deposition)

73

Painless erythematous lesions on palms and soles. Disease/Dx?

Janeway lesions (infective endocarditis, septic emboli/ microabscesses)

74

Painless jaundice. Disease/Dx?

Cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing bile duct

75

Palpable purpura on buttocks/legs, joint pain, abdominal pain (child), hematuria. Disease/Dx?

Henoch-Schönlein purpura (IgA vasculitis affecting skin and kidneys)

76

Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors. Disease/Dx?

MEN 1 (autosomal dominant)

77

Periorbital and/or peripheral edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia. Disease/Dx?

Nephrotic syndrome

78

Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation. Disease/Dx?

Pink puffer (emphysema: centriacinar [smoking], panacinar [α1-antitrypsin deficiency])

79

Polyuria, renal tubular acidosis type II, growth failure, electrolyte imbalances, hypophosphatemic rickets. Disease/Dx?

Fanconi syndrome (proximal tubular reabsorption defect)

80

Pruritic, purple, polygonal planar papules and plaques (6 P's). Disease/Dx?

Lichen planus

81

Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis. Disease/Dx?

Horner syndrome (sympathetic chain lesion)

82

Pupil accommodates but doesn't react. Disease/Dx?

Argyll Robertson pupil (neurosyphilis)

83

Rapidly progressive leg weakness that ascends following GI/upper respiratory infection. Disease/Dx?

Guillain-Barré syndrome (acute autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy)

84

Rash on palms and soles. Disease/Dx?

Coxsackie A, 2° syphilis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever

85

Recurrent colds, unusual eczema, high serum IgE. Disease/Dx?

Hyper-IgE syndrome (Job syndrome: neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality)

86

Red "currant jelly" sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients. Disease/Dx?

Klebsiella pneumoniae

87

Red "currant jelly" stools. Disease/Dx?

Acute mesenteric ischemia (adults), intussusception (infants)

88

Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple/areola. Disease/Dx?

Paget disease of the breast (sign of underlying neoplasm)

89

Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs. Disease/Dx?

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

90

Renal cell carcinoma (bilateral), hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma. Disease/Dx?

von Hippel-Lindau disease (dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation)

91

Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability. Disease/Dx?

Parkinson disease (nigrostriatal dopamine depletion)

92

Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers. Disease/Dx?

Roth spots (bacterial endocarditis)

93

Severe jaundice in neonate. Disease/Dx?

Crigler-Najjar syndrome (congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

94

Severe RLQ pain with palpation of LLQ. Disease/Dx?

Rovsing sign (acute appendicitis)

95

Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness. Disease/Dx?

McBurney sign (acute appendicitis)

96

Short stature, inc incidence of tumors/leukemia, aplastic anemia. Disease/Dx?

Fanconi anemia (genetic loss of DNA crosslink repair; often progresses to AML)

97

Single palmar crease. Disease/Dx?

Down syndrome

98

Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, infertility. Disease/Dx?

Kartagener syndrome (dynein arm defect affecting cilia)

99

Skin hyperpigmentation, hypotension, fatigue. Disease/Dx?

Addison disease (1° adrenocortical insufficiency causes inc ACTH and inc α-MSH production)

100

Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys. Disease/Dx?

Becker muscular dystrophy (X-linked missense mutation in dystrophin; less severe than Duchenne)

101

Small, irregular red spots on buccal/lingual mucosa with blue-white center. Disease/Dx?

Koplik spots (measles; rubeola virus)

102

Smooth, flat, moist, painless white lesions on genitals. Disease/Dx?

Condylomata lata (2° syphilis)

103

Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails. Disease/Dx?

Bacterial endocarditis

104

Strawberry tongue. Disease/Dx?

Scarlet fever, Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome

105

Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney, cystic hygroma at birth, short stature, webbed neck, lymphedema. Disease/Dx?

Turner syndrome (45,XO)

106

Sudden swollen/painful big toe joint, tophi. Disease/Dx?

Gout/podagra (hyperuricemia)

107

Swollen gums, mucosal bleeding, poor wound healing, petechiae. Disease/Dx?

Scurvy (vitamin C deficiency: can't hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen synthesis)

108

Swollen, hard, painful finger joints. Disease/Dx?

Osteoarthritis (osteophytes on PIP [Bouchard nodes], DIP [Heberden nodes])

109

Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo). Disease/Dx?

Aortic valve stenosis

110

Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma. Disease/Dx?

MEN 2A (autosomal dominant ret mutation)

111

Thyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuromatosis. Disease/Dx?

MEN 2B (autosomal dominant ret mutation)

112

Toe extension/fanning upon plantar scrape. Disease/Dx?

Babinski sign (UMN lesion)

113

Unilateral facial drooping involving forehead. Disease/Dx?

Facial nerve (LMN CN VII palsy)

114

Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male. Disease/Dx?

Reactive arthritis associated with HLA-B27

115

Vascular birthmark (port-wine stain). Disease/Dx?

Hemangioma (benign, but associated with Sturge-Weber syndrome)

116

Vomiting blood following gastroesophageal lacerations. Disease/Dx?

Mallory-Weiss syndrome (alcoholic and bulimic patients)

117

Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy. Disease/Dx?

Whipple disease (Tropheryma whipplei)

118

Worst headache of my life. Disease/Dx?

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

119

Labs: Anticentromere antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Scleroderma (CREST)

120

Labs: Antidesmoglein (epithelial) antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)

121

Labs: Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Goodpasture syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)

122

Labs: Antihistone antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Drug-induced SLE (hydralazine, INH, phenytoin, procainamide)

123

Labs: Anti-IgG antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonnière deformity)

124

Labs: Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs). Disease/Dx?

1° biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)

125

Labs: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs). Disease/Dx?

Microscopic polyangiitis and Churg-Strauss syndrome (MPO-ANCA/p-ANCA); granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA)

126

Labs: Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA). Disease/Dx?

SLE (type III hypersensitivity)

127

Labs: Antiplatelet antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

128

Labs: Anti-topoisomerase antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Diffuse systemic scleroderma

129

Labs: Anti-transglutaminase/anti-gliadin/anti-endomysial antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Celiac disease (diarrhea, distention, weight loss)

130

Labs: "Apple core" lesion on abdominal x-ray. Disease/Dx?

Colorectal cancer (usually left-sided)

131

Labs: Azurophilic peroxidase, + granular inclusions in granulocytes and myeloblasts. Disease/Dx?

Auer rods (AML, especially the promyelocytic [M3] type)

132

Labs: Bacitracin response. Disease/Dx?

Sensitive: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A); resistant: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)

133

Labs: "Bamboo spine" on x-ray. Disease/Dx?

Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)

134

Labs: Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs. Disease/Dx?

Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)

135

Labs: Basophilic stippling of RBCs. Disease/Dx?

Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia

136

Labs: Bloody tap on LP. Disease/Dx?

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

137

Labs: "Boot-shaped" heart on x-ray. Disease/Dx?

Tetralogy of Fallot, RVH

138

Labs: Branching gram-positive rods with sulfur granules. Disease/Dx?

Actinomyces israelii

139

Labs: Bronchogenic apical lung tumor on imaging. Disease/Dx?

Pancoast tumor (can compress sympathetic ganglion and cause Horner syndrome)

140

Labs: "Brown" tumor of bone. Disease/Dx?

Hyperparathyroidism or osteitis fibrosa cystica (deposited hemosiderin from hemorrhage gives brown color)

141

Labs: Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy. Disease/Dx?

Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)

142

Labs: Cellular crescents in Bowman capsule. Disease/Dx?

Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis

143

Labs: "Chocolate cyst" of ovary. Disease/Dx?

Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)

144

Labs: Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale. Disease/Dx?

Homer-Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, neurofibrils retinoblastoma)

145

Labs: Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs. Disease/Dx?

Cystic fibrosis (autosomal recessive mutation in CFTR gene --> fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs)

146

Labs: Decreased AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum. Disease/Dx?

Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormality

147

Labs: Degeneration of dorsal column nerves. Disease/Dx?

Tabes dorsalis (3° syphilis), subacute combined degeneration (dorsal columns and lateral corticospinal tracts affected)

148

Labs: Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra. Disease/Dx?

Parkinson disease (basal ganglia disorder: rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)

149

Labs: Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum. Disease/Dx?

Curschmann spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)

150

Labs: Disarrayed granulosa cells in eosinophilic fluid. Disease/Dx?

Call-Exner bodies (granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary)

151

Labs: Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with nuclear enlargement. Disease/Dx?

Koilocytes (HPV: predisposes to cervical cancer) and hyperchromasia

152

Labs: Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies. Disease/Dx?

Owl eye appearance of CMV

153

Labs: Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nuclei. Disease/Dx?

Orphan Annie eyes nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)

154

Labs: Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cell. Disease/Dx?

Mallory body (alcoholic liver disease)

155

Labs: Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell. Disease/Dx?

Lewy body (Parkinson disease)

156

Labs: Eosinophilic globule in liver. Disease/Dx?

Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)

157

Labs: Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal and cerebellar nerve cells. Disease/Dx?

Negri bodies of rabies

158

Labs: Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain. Disease/Dx?

Senile plaques (Alzheimer disease)

159

Labs: Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions ("owl's eye"). Disease/Dx?

Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin lymphoma)

160

Labs: Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells. Disease/Dx?

Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)

161

Labs: "Hair on end" (crew-cut) appearance on x-ray. Disease/Dx?

β-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (marrow expansion)

162

Labs: hCG elevated. Disease/Dx?

Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo, and multiple pregnancy)

163

Labs: Heart nodules (granulomatous). Disease/Dx?

Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)

164

Labs: Heterophile antibodies. Disease/Dx?

Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)

165

Labs: Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions. Disease/Dx?

Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules)

166

Labs: High level of D-dimers. Disease/Dx?

DVT, PE, DIC

167

Labs: Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify). Disease/Dx?

Ghon complex (1° TB: Mycobacterium bacilli)

168

Labs: "Honeycomb lung" on x-ray or CT. Disease/Dx?

Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis

169

Labs: Hypercoagulability (leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis). Disease/Dx?

Trousseau syndrome (adenocarcinoma of pancreas or lung)

170

Labs: Hypersegmented neutrophils. Disease/Dx?

Megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency: neurologic symptoms; folate deficiency: no neurologic symptoms)

171

Labs: Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis. Disease/Dx?

Conn syndrome

172

Labs: Hypochromic, microcytic anemia. Disease/Dx?

Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (fetal hemoglobin sometimes present)

173

Labs: Increased AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum. Disease/Dx?

Dating error, anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)

174

Labs: Increased uric acid levels. Disease/Dx?

Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics

175

Labs: Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies. Disease/Dx?

Cowdry type A bodies (HSV or CMV)

176

Labs: Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum. Disease/Dx?

Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis: inc chance of mesothelioma)

177

Labs: Keratin pearls on a skin biopsy. Disease/Dx?

Squamous cell carcinoma

178

Labs: Large lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes, immunodeficiency. Disease/Dx?

Chédiak-Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)

179

Labs: "Lead pipe" appearance of colon on barium enema x-ray. Disease/Dx?

Ulcerative colitis (loss of haustra)

180

Labs: Linear appearance of IgG deposition on glomerular basement. Disease/Dx?

Goodpasture syndrome membrane

181

Labs: Low serum ceruloplasmin. Disease/Dx?

Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)

182

Labs: "Lumpy bumpy" appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence. Disease/Dx?

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (immune complex deposition of IgG and C3b)

183

Labs: Lytic ("hole punched") bone lesions on x-ray. Disease/Dx?

Multiple myeloma

184

Labs: Mammary gland ("blue domed") cyst. Disease/Dx?

Fibrocystic change of the breast

185

Labs: Monoclonal antibody spike. Disease/Dx?

* Multiple myeloma (usually IgG or IgA)

186

Labs: Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus. Disease/Dx?

Signet ring (gastric carcinoma)

187

Labs: Narrowing of bowel lumen on barium x-ray. Disease/Dx?

String sign (Crohn disease)

188

Labs: Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis. Disease/Dx?

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/c-ANCA) and Goodpasture syndrome (anti-basement membrane antibodies)

189

Labs: Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent crystals. Disease/Dx?

Gout (monosodium urate crystals)

190

Labs: Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli. Disease/Dx?

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)

191

Labs: Novobiocin response. Disease/Dx?

Sensitive: Staphylococcus epidermidis; resistant: Staphylococcus saprophyticus

192

Labs: "Nutmeg" appearance of liver. Disease/Dx?

Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure

193

Labs: "Onion skin" periosteal reaction. Disease/Dx?

Ewing sarcoma (malignant round-cell tumor)

194

Labs: Optochin response. Disease/Dx?

Sensitive: Streptococcus pneumoniae; resistant: viridans streptococci

195

Labs: Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular area. Disease/Dx?

Codman triangle on x-ray (osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis)

196

Labs: Podocyte fusion or "effacement" on electron microscopy. Disease/Dx?

Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome)

197

Labs: Polished, "ivory-like" appearance of bone at cartilage erosion. Disease/Dx?

Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)

198

Labs: Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of tau protein. Disease/Dx?

Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer disease) and Pick bodies (Pick disease)

199

Labs: Psammoma bodies. Disease/Dx?

Meningiomas, papillary thyroid carcinoma, mesothelioma, papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium and ovary

200

Labs: Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy. Disease/Dx?

Glioblastoma multiforme

201

Labs: RBC casts in urine. Disease/Dx?

Acute glomerulonephritis

202

Labs: Rectangular, crystal-like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells. Disease/Dx?

Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)

203

Labs: Renal epithelial casts in urine. Disease/Dx?

Acute toxic/viral renal injury

204

Labs: Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent. Disease/Dx?

Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals)

205

Labs: Rib notching. Disease/Dx?

Coarctation of the aorta

206

Labs: Ring-enhancing brain lesion in AIDS. Disease/Dx?

Toxoplasma gondii, CNS lymphoma

207

Labs: Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells with scattered pale, tingible body-laden macrophages ("starry sky" histology). Disease/Dx?

Burkitt lymphoma (t[8:14] c-myc activation, associated with EBV; "black sky" made up of malignant cells)

208

Labs: Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons. Disease/Dx?

Pick bodies (Pick disease: progressive dementia, changes in personality)

209

Labs: "Soap bubble" in femur or tibia on x-ray. Disease/Dx?

Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)

210

Labs: "Spikes" on basement membrane, "dome-like" subepithelial deposits. Disease/Dx?

Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic syndrome)

211

Labs: Stacks of RBCs. Disease/Dx?

Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)

212

Labs: Stippled vaginal epithelial cells. Disease/Dx?

Clue cells (Gardnerella vaginalis)

213

Labs: "Tennis racket"-shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells. Disease/Dx?

Birbeck granules (Langerhans cell histiocytosis or histiocytosis X: eosinophilic granuloma)

214

Labs: Thrombi made of white/red layers. Disease/Dx?

Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)

215

Labs: "Thumb sign" on lateral x-ray. Disease/Dx?

Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)

216

Labs: Thyroid-like appearance of kidney. Disease/Dx?

Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis

217

Labs: "Tram-track" appearance of capillary loops of glomerular basement membranes on light microscopy. Disease/Dx?

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

218

Labs: Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles. Disease/Dx?

Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)

219

Labs: "Waxy" casts with very low urine flow. Disease/Dx?

Chronic end-stage renal disease

220

Labs: WBC casts in urine. Disease/Dx?

Acute pyelonephritis

221

Labs: WBCs that look "smudged". Disease/Dx?

CLL (almost always B cell)

222

Labs: "Wire loop" glomerular capillary appearance on light microscopy. Disease/Dx?

Lupus nephropathy

223

Labs: Yellowish CSF. Disease/Dx?

Xanthochromia (e.g., due to subarachnoid hemorrhage)

224

Condition: Absence seizures. Tx?

Ethosuximide

225

Condition: Acute gout attack. Tx?

NSAIDs, colchicine

226

Condition: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3). Tx?

All-trans retinoic acid

227

Condition: ADHD. Tx?

Methylphenidate, amphetamines

228

Condition: Alcohol use disorder. Tx?

AA + disulfiram, naltrexone, or acamprosate for patient. Al-Anon for patient's family

229

Condition: Alcohol withdrawal. Tx?

Benzodiazepines

230

Condition: Anorexia. Tx?

Nutrition, psychotherapy

231

Condition: Anticoagulation during pregnancy. Tx?

Heparin

232

Condition: Arrhythmia in damaged cardiac tissue. Tx?

Class IB antiarrhythmic (lidocaine, mexiletine, tocainide)

233

Condition: B12 deficiency. Tx?

Vitamin B12 supplementation (work up cause with Schilling test)

234

Condition: Benign prostatic hyperplasia. Tx?

Tamsulosin, finasteride

235

Condition: Bipolar disorder. Tx?

Lithium, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine (mood stabilizers)

236

Condition: Breast cancer in postmenopausal woman. Tx?

Aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole)

237

Condition: Buerger disease. Tx?

Smoking cessation

238

Condition: Bulimia nervosa. Tx?

SSRIs

239

Condition: Candida albicans. Tx?

Amphotericin B (systemic), nystatin (oral thrush), azoles (vaginitis)

240

Condition: Carcinoid syndrome. Tx?

Octreotide

241

Condition: Chlamydia trachomatis. Tx?

Doxycycline (+ ceftriaxone for gonorrhea coinfection), erythromycin eye drops (prophylaxis in infants)

242

Condition: Chronic gout. Tx?

Probenecid (underexcretor), allopurinol (overproducer), febuxostat

243

Condition: Chronic hepatitis. Tx?

IFN-α

244

Condition: Chronic myelogenous leukemia. Tx?

Imatinib

245

Condition: Clostridium botulinum. Tx?

Antitoxin

246

Condition: Clostridium difficile. Tx?

Oral metronidazole; if refractory, oral vancomycin

247

Condition: Clostridium tetani. Tx?

Antitoxin + vaccine booster + diazepam

248

Condition: CMV. Tx?

Ganciclovir

249

Condition: Crohn disease. Tx?

Corticosteroids, infliximab, methotrexate, azathioprine

250

Condition: Cryptococcus neoformans. Tx?

Fluconazole (prophylaxis in AIDS patients)

251

Condition: Cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. Tx?

Mesna

252

Condition: Depression. Tx?

SSRIs (first-line)

253

Condition: Diabetes insipidus. Tx?

DDAVP (central); hydrochlorothiazide, indomethacin, amiloride (nephrogenic)

254

Condition: Diabetes mellitus type 1. Tx?

Dietary intervention (low sugar) + insulin replacement

255

Condition: Diabetes mellitus type 2. Tx?

Dietary intervention, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin (if refractory)

256

Condition: Diabetic ketoacidosis. Tx?

Fluids, insulin, K+

257

Condition: Enterococci. Tx?

Vancomycin/ampicillin + aminoglycoside

258

Condition: Erectile dysfunction. Tx?

Sildenafil, vardenafil

259

Condition: ER+ breast cancer. Tx?

Tamoxifen

260

Condition: Ethylene glycol/methanol intoxication. Tx?

Fomepizole (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor)

261

Condition: Haemophilus influenzae (B). Tx?

Rifampin (prophylaxis)

262

Condition: Generalized anxiety disorder. Tx?

Buspirone

263

Condition: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener). Tx?

Cyclophosphamide, corticosteroids

264

Condition: Heparin toxicity (acute). Tx?

Protamine sulfate

265

Condition: HER2/neu+ breast cancer. Tx?

Trastuzumab

266

Condition: Hyperaldosteronism. Tx?

Spironolactone

267

Condition: Hypercholesterolemia. Tx?

Statin (first-line)

268

Condition: Hypertriglyceridemia. Tx?

Fibrate

269

Condition: Immediate anticoagulation. Tx?

Heparin

270

Condition: Infertility. Tx?

Leuprolide, GnRH (pulsatile), clomiphene

271

Condition: Influenza. Tx?

Rimantadine, oseltamivir

272

Condition: Legionella pneumophila. Tx?

Erythromycin

273

Condition: Long-term anticoagulation. Tx?

Warfarin

274

Condition: Malaria. Tx?

Chloroquine/mefloquine (for blood schizont), primaquine (for liver hypnozoite)

275

Condition: Malignant hyperthermia. Tx?

Dantrolene

276

Condition: Medical abortion. Tx?

Mifepristone

277

Condition: Migraine. Tx?

Sumatriptan

278

Condition: MRSA. Tx?

Vancomycin

279

Condition: Multiple sclerosis. Tx?

β-interferon, immunosuppression, natalizumab

280

Condition: Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tx?

RIPE (rifampin, INH, pyrazinamide, ethambutol)

281

Condition: Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Tx?

Ceftriaxone (add doxycycline to cover likely concurrent Chlamydia)

282

Condition: Neisseria meningitidis. Tx?

Penicillin/ceftriaxone, rifampin (prophylaxis)

283

Condition: Neural tube defect prevention. Tx?

Prenatal folic acid

284

Condition: Osteomalacia/rickets. Tx?

Vitamin D supplementation

285

Condition: Osteoporosis. Tx?

Bisphosphonates; calcium and vitamin D supplementation

286

Condition: Patent ductus arteriosus. Tx?

Indomethacin

287

Condition: Pheochromocytoma. Tx?

α-antagonists (e.g., phenoxybenzamine)

288

Condition: Pneumocystis jirovecii. Tx?

TMP-SMX (prophylaxis in AIDS patient)

289

Condition: Prolactinoma. Tx?

Bromocriptine (dopamine agonists)

290

Condition: Prostate cancer/uterine fibroids. Tx?

Leuprolide, GnRH (continuous)

291

Condition: Prostate carcinoma. Tx?

Flutamide

292

Condition: Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Tx?

Antipseudomonal penicillin + aminoglycoside

293

Condition: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (idiopathic). Tx?

Sildenafil, bosentan, epoprostenol

294

Condition: Rickettsia rickettsii. Tx?

Doxycycline, chloramphenicol (associated with aplastic anemia)

295

Condition: Ringworm infections. Tx?

Terbinafine, griseofulvin, imidazole

296

Condition: Schizophrenia (negative symptoms). Tx?

5-HT2A antagonists (e.g., 2nd-generation antipsychotics)

297

Condition: Schizophrenia (positive symptoms). Tx?

D2 receptor antagonists (e.g., 1st- and 2nd-generation antipsychotics)

298

Condition: SIADH. Tx?

Demeclocycline, lithium, vasopressin receptor antagonists

299

Condition: Sickle cell anemia. Tx?

Hydroxyurea (inc fetal hemoglobin)

300

Condition: Sporothrix schenckii. Tx?

Oral potassium iodide

301

Condition: Stable angina. Tx?

Sublingual nitroglycerin

302

Condition: Staphylococcus aureus. Tx?

MSSA: nafcillin, oxacillin, dicloxacillin (antistaphylococcal penicillins); MRSA: vancomycin

303

Condition: Streptococcus bovis. Tx?

Penicillin prophylaxis; evaluation for colon cancer if linked to endocarditis

304

Condition: Streptococcus pneumoniae. Tx?

Penicillin/cephalosporin (systemic infection, pneumonia), vancomycin (meningitis)

305

Condition: Streptococcus pyogenes. Tx?

Penicillin prophylaxis

306

Condition: Temporal arteritis. Tx?

High-dose steroids

307

Condition: Tonic-clonic seizures. Tx?

Phenytoin, valproate, carbamazepine

308

Condition: Toxoplasma gondii. Tx?

Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine

309

Condition: Treponema pallidum. Tx?

Penicillin

310

Condition: Trichomonas vaginalis. Tx?

Metronidazole (patient and partner)

311

Condition: Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux). Tx?

Carbamazepine

312

Condition: Ulcerative colitis. Tx?

5-ASA, infliximab, colectomy

313

Condition: UTI prophylaxis. Tx?

TMP-SMX

314

Condition: Warfarin toxicity. Tx?

Fresh frozen plasma (acute), vitamin K (chronic)

315

Actinic (solar) keratosis. Association?

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

316

Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury. Association?

Cushing ulcer (inc intracranial pressure stimulates vagal gastric secretion)

317

Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns. Association?

Curling ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)

318

Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon. Association?

Skip lesions (Crohn disease)

319

Aneurysm, dissecting. Association?

Hypertension

320

Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta. Association?

Atherosclerosis

321

Aortic aneurysm, arch. Association?

3° syphilis (syphilitic aortitis), vasa vasorum destruction

322

Aortic aneurysm, ascending. Association?

Marfan syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

323

Atrophy of the mammillary bodies. Association?

Wernicke encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)

324

Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage). Association?

Sickle cell anemia (hemoglobin S)

325

Bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and stomach cancer. Association?

H. pylori

326

Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly). Association?

Streptococcus pneumoniae

327

Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids). Association?

Group B streptococcus/E.coli (newborns), S. pneumoniae/ Neisseria meningitidis (kids)

328

Benign melanocytic nevus. Association?

Spitz nevus (most common in 1st two decades)

329

Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency. Association?

Bernard-Soulier syndrome (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor)

330

Brain tumor (adults). Association?

Supratentorial: metastasis > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma

331

Brain tumor (kids). Association?

Infratentorial: medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma

332

Breast cancer. Association?

Infiltrating ductal carcinoma

333

Breast mass. Association?

Fibrocystic change, carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)

334

Breast tumor (benign). Association?

Fibroadenoma

335

Cardiac 1° tumor (kids). Association?

Rhabdomyoma, often seen in tuberous sclerosis

336

Cardiac manifestation of lupus. Association?

Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting both sides of mitral valve)

337

Cardiac tumor (adults). Association?

Metastasis, 1° myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and valve")

338

Cerebellar tonsillar herniation. Association?

Chiari II malformation

339

Chronic arrhythmia. Association?

Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)

340

Chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune). Association?

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

341

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina. Association?

DES exposure in utero

342

Compression fracture. Association?

Osteoporosis (type I: postmenopausal woman; type II: elderly man or woman)

343

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hypotension. Association?

21-hydroxylase deficiency

344

Congenital cardiac anomaly. Association?

VSD

345

Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver). Association?

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

346

Constrictive pericarditis. Association?

TB (developing world); SLE (developed world)

347

Coronary artery involved in thrombosis. Association?

LAD > RCA > LCA

348

Cretinism. Association?

Iodine deficit/hypothyroidism

349

Cushing syndrome. Association?

* Iatrogenic Cushing (from corticosteroid therapy)

350

Cyanosis (early; less common). Association?

Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus

351

Cyanosis (late; more common). Association?

VSD, ASD, PDA

352

Death in CML. Association?

Blast crisis

353

Death in SLE. Association?

Lupus nephropathy

354

Dementia. Association?

Alzheimer disease, multiple infarcts

355

Demyelinating disease in young women. Association?

Multiple sclerosis

356

DIC. Association?

Severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns, trauma, major surgery

357

Dietary deficit. Association?

Iron

358

Diverticulum in pharynx. Association?

Zenker diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

359

Ejection click. Association?

Aortic/pulmonic stenosis

360

Esophageal cancer. Association?

Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (U.S.)

361

Food poisoning (exotoxin mediated). Association?

S. aureus, B. cereus

362

Glomerulonephritis (adults). Association?

Berger disease (IgA nephropathy)

363

Gynecologic malignancy. Association?

Endometrial carcinoma (most common in U.S.); cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)

364

Heart murmur, congenital. Association?

Mitral valve prolapse

365

Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis. Association?

Mitral > aortic (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug abuse)

366

Helminth infection (U.S.). Association?

Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides

367

Hematoma—epidural. Association?

Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)

368

Hematoma—subdural. Association?

Rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)

369

Hemochromatosis. Association?

Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in CHF, "bronze diabetes," and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)

370

Hepatocellular carcinoma. Association?

Cirrhotic liver (associated with hepatitis B and C and with alcoholism)

371

Hereditary bleeding disorder. Association?

von Willebrand disease

372

Hereditary harmless jaundice. Association?

Gilbert syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

373

HLA-B27. Association?

Ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, ulcerative colitis, psoriatic arthritis

374

HLA-DR3 or -DR4. Association?

Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE

375

Holosystolic murmur. Association?

VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation

376

Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis. Association?

Virchow triad (results in venous thrombosis)

377

Hypertension, 2°. Association?

Renal disease

378

Hypoparathyroidism. Association?

Accidental excision during thyroidectomy

379

Hypopituitarism. Association?

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

380

Infection 2° to blood transfusion. Association?

Hepatitis C

381

Infections in chronic granulomatous disease. Association?

Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase+)

382

Intellectual disability. Association?

Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome

383

Kidney stones. Association?

Calcium = radiopaque

384

Late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected left to right becomes right to left). Association?

Eisenmenger syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)

385

Liver disease. Association?

Alcoholic cirrhosis

386

Lysosomal storage disease. Association?

Gaucher disease

387

Male cancer. Association?

Prostatic carcinoma

388

Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever. Association?

Hodgkin lymphoma

389

Malignancy (kids). Association?

ALL, medulloblastoma (cerebellum)

390

Metastases to bone. Association?

Prostate, breast > lung > thyroid

391

Metastases to brain. Association?

Lung > breast > genitourinary > melanoma > GI

392

Metastases to liver. Association?

Colon >> stomach, pancreas

393

Mitochondrial inheritance. Association?

Disease occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only

394

Mitral valve stenosis. Association?

Rheumatic heart disease

395

Mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease. Association?

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

396

Myocarditis. Association?

Coxsackie B

397

Nephrotic syndrome (adults). Association?

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

398

Nephrotic syndrome (kids). Association?

Minimal change disease

399

Neuron migration failure. Association?

Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia)

400

Nosocomial pneumonia. Association?

Klebsiella, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

401

Obstruction of male urinary tract. Association?

BPH

402

Opening snap. Association?

Mitral stenosis

403

Opportunistic infection in AIDS. Association?

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia

404

Osteomyelitis. Association?

S. aureus

405

Osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease. Association?

Salmonella

406

Osteomyelitis with IV drug use. Association?

Pseudomonas, S. aureus

407

Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer. Association?

Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)

408

Ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral). Association?

Serous cystadenoma

409

Ovarian tumor (malignant). Association?

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

410

Pancreatitis (acute). Association?

Gallstones, alcohol

411

Pancreatitis (chronic). Association?

Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

412

Patient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML (ages). Association?

ALL: child, CLL: adult > 60, AML: adult ~65, CML: adult 30-60

413

Pelvic inflammatory disease. Association?

Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae

414

Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl). Association?

CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)

415

Pituitary tumor. Association?

Prolactinoma, somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma

416

1° amenorrhea. Association?

Turner syndrome (45,XO)

417

1° bone tumor (adults). Association?

Multiple myeloma

418

1° hyperaldosteronism. Association?

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

419

1° hyperparathyroidism. Association?

Adenomas, hyperplasia, carcinoma

420

1° liver cancer. Association?

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, α1-antitrypsin deficiency)

421

Pulmonary hypertension. Association?

COPD

422

Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels. Association?

Buerger disease (strongly associated with tobacco) in extremities

423

Renal tumor. Association?

Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and cigarette smoking; paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTH, ACTH)

424

Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause. Association?

Cor pulmonale

425

S3 (protodiastolic gallop). Association?

inc ventricular filling (left-to-right shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])

426

S4 (presystolic gallop). Association?

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

427

2° hyperparathyroidism. Association?

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

428

Sexually transmitted disease. Association?

Chlamydia (usually coinfected with gonorrhea)

429

SIADH. Association?

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

430

Site of diverticula. Association?

Sigmoid colon

431

Sites of atherosclerosis. Association?

Abdominal aorta > coronary artery > popliteal artery > carotid artery

432

Stomach cancer. Association?

Adenocarcinoma

433

Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels. Association?

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)

434

t(14;18). Association?

Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)

435

t(8;14). Association?

Burkitt lymphoma (c-myc activation)

436

t(9;22). Association?

Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl fusion)

437

Temporal arteritis. Association?

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

438

Testicular tumor. Association?

Seminoma (malignant, radiosensitive)

439

Thyroid cancer. Association?

Papillary carcinoma

440

Tumor in women. Association?

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

441

Tumor of infancy. Association?

Hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood)

442

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults). Association?

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

443

Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids). Association?

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

444

Type of Hodgkin. Association?

Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

445

Type of non-Hodgkin. Association?

Diffuse large cell

446

UTI. Association?

E. coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)

447

Viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe. Association?

HSV-1

448

Vitamin deficiency (U.S.). Association?

Folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply; prevents neural tube defects)

Decks in USMLE Step 1 Class (97):