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Flashcards in UWorld_1.13 Deck (14)
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1

Pathophysiology of centriacinar emphysema

  • centriacinar emphysema = due to chronic, heavy smoking
  • infiltrating neutrophils and macrophages release proteinases (esp. elastase) ==> damage of Type 1 pneumocytes

2

Characteristics of Fabry disease

  • inherited deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A ==> accumulation of globoside ceramide trihexose ==>
    • hypohidrosis
    • acroparesthesia = episodic, burning neuropathy @ extremities
    • angiokeratomia = dark red, non-blanching macules/papules between umbilicus and knees
  • w/out enzyme replacement ==> renal failure

3

Gene products of HIV virus

  • gag, pol, env = structural genes
    • gag ==> p24 and p7 (nucleocapsid proteins)
    • pol ==> reverse transcriptase
    • env ==> gp120 and gp41 (envelope glycoproteins)
  • tat, rev = regulatory genes = required for replication

4

Mortality of breast vs. colon vs. lung vs. stomach vs. ovarian cancers in women

 

  • lung cancer = highest mortality rate; sharp increase over last 40 years
  • breast cancer
    • most common non-skin
    • mortality rates relatively low (vs. lung)
  • colon cancer = mortality decreased over last 40 years
  • stomach cancer = previously common, drastically reduced mortality
  • ovarian = low, steady mortality 

5

Right testicular vein ==>

Left testicular vein ==>

  • Pampiniform plexus ==> Right testicular vein ==> IVC
  • Pampinoform plexus ==> Left testicular vein ==> left renal vein

6

Atypical lymphs of blood smear in infectious mono = 

activated CD8+ T-lymphocytes ==> destroy virally infected B cells

7

Potential heart murmur in patient w/extertional dyspnea/syncope

  • Aortic stenosis ==> abnormal pressure gradient between left ventricle and aorta during systole
    • systolic murmur, crescendo-decrescendo

8

K filtration @ kidney

  1. K flows freely at glomerulus ==> 100% of filtered load in tubule
  2. ~65% of K reabsorbed @ proximal tubule ==> ~35% of filtered load in tubule
  3. 25-30% more K reabsorbed at thick ascending LOH ==> 5% of filtered load in tubule
  4. **First 3 steps consistent regardless of K status**
  5. @ low serum levels of K:
    1. alpha-intercalated cells (@ distal tubule/collecting duct) reabsorb K via H/K/ATPase ==> as low as 1% of filtered load in tubule
  6. @ high serum levels of K:
    1. principle cells (@distal tubule/CD) secrete K via apical K channels ==> as high as 110% of filtered load in tubule

9

Pharyngeal/Aortic Arch 1 ==> CN? Key structures?

  • Trigeminal (CN V)
  • Maxillary artery (portion)

10

Pharyngeal/Aortic Arch 2 ==> CN? Key structures?

  • Facial (CN VII)
  • Stapedial artery (regresses)

11

Pharyngeal/Aortic Arch 3 ==> CN? Key structures?

  • Glossopharyngeal (CN IX)
  • Common carotid a.
  • prox. interal carotid a.

12

Pharyngeal/Aortic Arch 4 ==> CN? Key structures?

  • sup. laryngeal branch of vagus (CN X)
  • true aortic arch
  • subclavian arteries

13

Pharyngeal/Aortic Arch 5 ==> CN? Key structures?

obliterated

14

Pharyngeal/Aortic Arch 6 ==> CN? Key structures?

  • recurrent laryngeal branch of Vagus (CN X)
  • pulmonary arteries
  • ductus arteriosus

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