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USMLE Step 1 > UWorld_3.26 > Flashcards

Flashcards in UWorld_3.26 Deck (23)
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1

Initial test for hypothyroidism

-TSH levels <== more sensitive than T4/T3 levels

2

Major signal trasnduction systems

1. MAP-kinase 2. PIP3K/Akt/mTOR 3. cAMP 4. Inositol phospholipid 5. JAK/STAT

3

Characteristics of PIP3K/Akt/mTOR pathway

-important in cell growth and proliferation -tyrosine kinase receptor autophosphorylates ==> PIP3K converts PIP2=>PIP3 ==> Akt activation ==> mTOR = trxn factor -PTEN inhibits mTOR activation: tumor suppressor that removes phosphate from PIP3

4

Characteristics of thalamic stroke

-complete sensory loss on contralateral side of body -no motor deficits -loss of proprioception ==> difficulty ambulating

5

Cause of lacunar infarcts

-lipohylanosis or atherosclerosis w/in penetrating vessels to deep brain structure

6

Medium for growing Neisseria

-Thayer-Martin VCN (vanc/colistin/nystatin) agar = selective medium for Neisseria

7

Neuronal cells vulnerable to global ischemia

1. hippocampus 2. purkinje cells of cerebellum

8

Gram + cocci that produces yellow pigment

S. aureus (aureus = gold)

9

Characteristics of digoxin toxicity

-nonspecific GI = N/V, abdominal pain, anorexia -neurologic = fatigue, confusion, weakness, sometimes: color vision changes -most serious complication = arrhythmias

10

Drugs not to use with partially occluded coronary arteries

-coronary artery vasodilators -vasodilation of unoccluded arteries ==> reduced blood flow through collaterals to ischemic areas ==> worsening ischemia

11

Virus: nonenveloped w/ssDNA

parvoviridae = parvovirus B19 ==> 1. erythema infectiousum (5th disease) 2. aplastic crisis in sickle cell 3. hydrops fetalis @ <20wks gestation

12

Location to perform thoracocentesis

-between ribs 5-7 @ midclavicular (on upper border) -between ribs 7-9 @ midaxillary (on upper border)

13

Location of intercostal neurovascular bundle

in subcostal groove @ lower border of rib

14

Which of these drugs would cause bradycardia: -Nifedipine -Captopril -Verapamil -Isosorbide nitrate -Prazosin

-verapamil only -all others act peripherally

15

Drugs with negative chronotropic effects @ heart

-B-blockers -non-dihydropyridine Ca-channel blockser (verapamil, diltiazem) -cardiac glycosides (digoxin) -Amiodarone and sotalol -Cholinergic agonists (pilocarpine, rivastigmine)

16

Drug effect of sildanefil is similar to what naturally occuring hormones/mechanisms

1. NO 2. ANP all ==> increased cGMP

17

Vegetation composition in bacterial endocarditis

fibrin & platelet deposition at sites of bacterial invasion due to exposure of TF

18

Presentation of Kawasaki's

-child w/ 1. fever 2. lymphadenopathy 3. bilateral conjuctivitis 4. cutaneous involvement -palate/tongue erythema -edema/erythema @ palms/soles = fingertip desquamation -general rash: extremities ==> trunk

19

Renal consequence associated with Chron's

-oxalate kidney stones -oxalate normally bound by calcium, but crohn's ==> decreased Ca2+ absorption ==> oxalate precipitation

20

Biopsy in paget disease of bone

mosaic pattern of lamellar bone

21

Embryo: -deformation -malformation -disruption -sequence

-deform = change in fetal structure due to mechanical forces; e.g. clubbed feet, hip dislocation due to breach position -malform = primary defect/intrinsic abnormality; e.g. holoprosencephaly, congenital heart defect -disruption = disruption of previously normal tissue; e.g. amnio rupture ==> limb damage -sequence = key single problem ==> number of abnormalities; e.g. oligohydramnios/potter

22

DDAVP: moa, use

-vasopressin analog -little affect @ V1 receptors ==> no vasoconstriction -use: 1. central DI 2. bleeding control: induces release of procoag proteins (e.g. vWF) and stabilized factor VIII (Hemo A)

23

Substances that induce angiogenesis

-VEGF -FGF (fibroblast)

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