Rx_Random Set #6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Rx_Random Set #6 Deck (26)
1

Examples of live attenuated vaccines

  • MMR
  • Sabin polio
  • intranasal influenza
  • varicella
  • yellow fever

2

Examples of inactivated vaccines

  • Rabies
  • injected Influenza
  • Salk Polio
  • HAV (Hep A)

3

Cremaster muscle innervation & muscular derivation

  • innervation: genitofemoral n.
  • m. derivation: internal abdominal oblique

4

Presentation/mechanism of meckel's diverticulum

  • meckel's diverticulum = persistence of vitelline duct (omphalomesenteric duct)
    • ==> small bulge in small intestine
    • can ==> GI bleed, obstruction, volvulus, intussusception
    • "rule of 2's"
      • present in 2% of population; 2% are symptomatic
      • 2:1 male to female prevalence
      • 2 ft. from ileocecal valve
      • 2 inches in length
  • general presentation
    • often asymptomatic
    • can present w/rectal bleeding or intestinal obstruction 

5

Cells that secrete IL-2 + important cell marker

  • T-lymphocytes secrete IL-2  ==> B cell maturation/differentiation
  • T-cells secretion mediated by CD3 receptor

6

andrenergic receptor type @ bronchi

Beta2

7

Types of malaria infections + causative organism

  • Plasmodium = protozoa that infect humans; transmitted by female Anopheles mosquito
  • Plasmodium falciparum
    • Africa
    • cerebral malaria
  • P. knowlesi
    • primarily macaques
    • humans in SE Asia
  • P. ovale
    • 48 hour cyclic fever
    • form hypnozoites ==> dormant
    • no cerebral
  • P. vivax
    • 48 hour cyclic fever
    • form hypnozoites
    • no cerebral
  • P. malariae
    • 72 hour cyclic fever
    • no cerebral

8

Leading cause of cancer death + histologic findings

  • lung cancer (both genders)
  • adenocarcinoma
    • gladular differentiation or mucin production (most common)
    • possible bronchoalveolar spread

9

child w/high fever, drooling, difficulty breathing, inspiratory distress ==> dx? + findings + most common etiology/organism type

  • Dx: epiglottitis
  • Xray = thumbprint sign, aryepiglottic folds
  • most common: H. influenzae
    • gram-negative coccobacilli

10

Characteristics/presentation of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

  • gastrin overproduction ==> gastric hypersecretion and peptic ulcers @ distal duodenum and jejunum
  • negative H. pylori

11

Croup vs. Epiglottitis

12

Thymoma paraneoplastic syndrome association

  • predominantly autoimmune/endocrine
  • MG
  • pure RBC aplasia
  • hypogammaglobulinemia

13

Characteristics of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

  • X-linked
  • enzyme deficiency in hexose monophosphate shunt pathway
    • protects RBCs from oxidative damage
  • setting of oxidative drugs (sulfa-containing, antimalarials), fava beans, or infection ==> 
    • hemoglobin precipitation = small round inclusion in RBC = "Heinz body"
    • ==> hemolysis ==> increased indirect bilirubin

14

Niacin MOA + adverse effects

  • MOA: reduced hepatic TG synthesis and VLDL secretion + significant increase in HDL cholesterol
  • SE:
    • flushing
    • myopathy

15

DM drug ==> endogenous insulin release (& MOA + Adverse rxn)

  • sulfonylurea drugs, e.g. Tolbutamide
  • MOA: close K channels @ pancreatic beta cells ==> cell depolarization ==> calcium influx ==> insulin release
  • SE:
    • disulfiram-like rxn: flushing, tachycardia, naseau, hyperventilation

16

Findings in Patau's syndrome

  • Patau's = trisomy 13
  • microcephaly
  • micropthalmia
  • polydactyly
  • hypotonia/CNS defects
  • congenital heart disease

17

Purpose of direct coombs' vs. indirect coombs'

  • direct = detects antibodies attached to patient's RBCs
  • indirect = detects antibodies circulating in patient's serum

18

Gemfibrozil MOA 

  • gemfibrozil = fibric acid derivative 
    • increases activity of lipoprotein lipase by acting on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha protein
  •  ==> large decrease in triglycerides, small reduction in LDL cholesterol, small increase in HDL cholesterol

19

Griseofulvin: MOA

  • antifungal agent
  • binds to alpha/beta-tubulin dimers during M phase of cell cylce
    • tubulin dimers = major structure along which kinetochore-attached kinesin motors carry sister chromatids

20

Common causes of antepartum (late-term) hemorrhage

  • antepartum hemorrhage = significant vaginal bleeding after 20 weeks gestation not related to labor and delivery
  • placenta previa
  • abruptio placentae

21

Factors ==> right shift in hemoglobin curve

  • right shift = decreased oxygen affinity ==> more unloading at tissue
  • e.g during exercise
    • increase temp
    • decreased pH
    • increased CO2
  • increased 2,3 - diphosphoglycerate levels
  • decreased fetal hemoglobin/increased adult hemoglobin

22

Factors ==> left shift in hemoglobin curve

  • left shift = increased affinity for oxygen
  • increased fetal hemoglobin/decreased adult hemoglobin
  • increased pH ("decreased H+)
  • decreased 2,3 - diphosphoglyerate
  • decreased temperature
  • decreased carbon dioxide
  • carbon monoxide exposure ==> increased carboxyhemoglobin levels

23

Weak handshake + difficulty spreading fingers + inability to extend digits 4 and 5  ==> Dx?

  • "Handbar palsy" = ulnar neuropathy
    • hook of hamate compresses ulnar nerve
  • results from extended amounts of time w/wrist extended

24

Tacrolimus: MOA

  • immunosuppressant
  • MOA: complexes w/FK-binding protein 12 ==> inhibition of clacineurin ==> inhibition of T-lymphocyte signaling

25

Presenation of pancoast tumor

  • pancoast tumor = carcinoma @ lung apex ==> compression of cervical sympathetic plexus (second-order, preganglionic)
  • Horner syndrome
    • ispilateral ptsosis, miosis, anhidrosis
  • SVC syndrome
  • sensorimotor deficits
  • hoarseness

26

Hypersexuality + hyperorality + disinhibited behavior ==> Dx?

  • Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
  • due to bilateral amygdala insult
    • usually 2o to ischemic stroke

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