Rx_2.11 (Renal) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Rx_2.11 (Renal) Deck (13)
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1

Post-leukemia tx w/chemo + lower back pain ==> dx?

  • uric acid stones (seen on ultrasound)

2

Causes of caclium-based stones

  • hypecalcemia ==> hypercalcuria
    • hyperparathyroidism
    • destructive bone disease
    • increased vitamin D levels
    • milk alkali syndrome
  • calcium-oxalate stones
    • ethylene glycol (antifreeze)
    • vitamin C abuse
    • Chron disease

3

Dehdration impacts on afferent/efferent arteriole and GFR and RPF

  • PGE ==> vasodilation @ afferent
  • ATII ==> contriction @ efferent
  • increased GFR
  • decreased RPF

4

Consequence of chronic schistosoma hematobium

  • S. hematobium = parasitic flatworm spread via snails ==> urinary bladder ==>
    • asymptomatic vs. chronic inlfammation vs. persistent hematuria
  • Chronic bladder wall schistosomiasis ==> squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder
    • areas of infection in bladder wall seen as focal calcification during cystography

5

Tx for schistosomiasis infection

praziquantel

6

Dracunculus medinensis characteristics/presentation

  • "Guinea worm"
  • parasitic worm found in Africa
  • resides @ subcutaneous tissue
    • ==> cutaneous nodules/ulcerations
    • no systemic illness
  • female tail protrudes from ulcer @ lower limb in order to release offspring after contact with water

7

Necator americanus characteristics/presentation

  • hookworm
  • found in Americas, sub-saharan Africa, SE Asia
  • ==> chronic hookworm infection @ children ==> malnutrion, mental disability, abdominal pain, diarrhea

8

Schistosoma mansoni characteristics/presentation

  • flatworm w/similar characteristics to S. hematobium
  • @ Sub-saharan Africa, South America
  • associations
    • intestinal schistosomiasis
    • intestinal cancer
    • liver infection
    • Katayama fever

9

Schistosoma mansoniTaenia solium

  • "pork tapeworm" = flatwom that infects pigs and humans in Asia, Africa, Americas
  • morphology
    • long, slender, flat bodies w/subunits ("proglottids") and single head
    • numerous hooks/suckers ==> attach to intestinal wall
  • chronic infection ==> intestinal sx
  • may migrate to brain ==> neurocysticercosis 

10

Conn syndrome characteristics + tx

  • primary hyperaldosteronism
  • tx = spironolactone
    • competitive aldosterone receptor antagonist
    • steroid molecule

11

UA in pyelonephritis

  • pyuria
  • WBC casts

12

Granular casts ==> ?

acute tubular necrosis

13

Common embryologic process failure in Potter syndrome

  • failure of development of ureteric buds ==> bilateral renal agenesis

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