Rx_Random Set #4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Rx_Random Set #4 Deck (28)
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1

Neuropathologic findings in Wernicke's encephalopathy/Korsakoff Psychosis

  • symmetric lesions @ paraventricular regions of thalamus and hypothalamus, mamillary bodies, periaqueductal reguion of the midbrain

2

Confusion+opthalmoplegia+ataxia & personality change+confabulation+memory loss ==> dx?

  • Wernicke's encephalopathy + Korsakoff's psychosis

3

Cause of congential hypothyroidism

  • Defect in thyroxine (T4) formation
  • low T4 ==> elevated TSH

4

Sx/PE findings in Mitral stenosis

  • sx: Dyspnea on exertion
  • PE:
    • murmur = opening snap + late diastolic rumble

5

Most likely etiology of mitral stenosis

  • rheumatic heart disease
    • i.e. previous infection w/step pyogenes

6

Muscles innervated by CNIII

  • inferior oblique
  • inferior rectus
  • medial rectus
  • superior rectus

7

Common causes of right-sided heart failure

  1. Left-sided heart
  2. Pulmonary Hypertension

8

Dx?: child w/2 mo. hx of fatigue, fever, decreased appetite, night sweats + lymphadenopathy, pallor, petechiae + WBC > 200,000 w/ >20% leukemic blasts

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)

9

Lab results characteristic of ALL (acute lymphocytic leukemia)

  • > 20% leukemic blasts
  • (often) neutropenia
    • rapid proliferation of WBCs crows out production of other cells and causes bone marrow failure

10

Flumazenil use/MOA

  • antidote to benzodiazepine overdose
  • MOA: competitive inhibition at GABAA receptors

11

Dx? 

Assualtive behavior, belligerence, psychosis, impulsiveness + fever, tacychardia, vertical and horizontal nystagmus, HTN

PCP intoxication

12

PCP intoxication tx

Benzodiazepine or Haloperidol

13

Azithromycin MOA

  • Macrolides (Azithromycin) : bind 50S subunit of ribosomes to prevent translocation of tRNA

14

Late stage prostate cancer presentation

  • difficulty urinating
  • bone pain due to osteblastic metastases

15

Tx of prostate cancer

  • antiandrogenic medications:
    • leuprolide
    • flutamide

16

Dantrolene ues/MOA

  • use: tx of malignant hyperthermia
  • MOA: prevents release of calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle ==> prevents m. contraction

17

NT that ==> stimulation of adrenal gland

acetylcholine from pre-ganglionic sympathetic neurons

18

Dx? pt. w/hearing loss + bilateral vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas)

Neurofibromatosis type 2

19

Characteristics of Neurofibromatosis type 2

  • bilateral acoustic neuromas
  • associated w/other CNS tumors:
    • meningiomas
    • gliomas
    • neurofibromas
    • ependymomas

20

Trinucleotide repeat diseases

  • Huntington's 
  • Friedrich's ataxia
  • mytonic dystrophy

21

Inheritance phenomenon in trinucleotide repeat disease

  • anticipation = age of idsease onset decreases w/each generation

22

Severe adverse effects of typical antipsychotic meds (Haloperidol)

  • neuroleptic malignant syndrome
    • hyperthermia
    • muscle rigidity
    • autonomic instability
    • high creatine phosphokinase
    • myoglobinuria

23

Dx?

Menstrual irregularities, cold intolerance, constipation, increased skin pigmentation

  • multiple endocrine disorders ==> anterior pituitary dysfxn

24

Anterior pituitary dysfxn ==>

  • multiple endocrine disorders
  • compression @ optic chiasm ==> bi-temporal heianopia (vision loss at temporal visual fields)

25

Pathogens that undergo lysogenic conversion

  • diptheria (C. diptheriae)
  • Scarlet fever (s. pyogenes)
  • botulism (C. botulinum)
  • cholera (v. cholerae)

26

Giardiasis characteristics and tx

  • GI illness
  • fecal-oral transmission
  • chronic + acute diarrhea
    • bulky, frothy stools
  • N/V
  • tx = metronidazole

27

Common location of carcinoid GI tumors

  • midgut-derived small bowel

28

ß-Thalassemia: inheritance, (general) disease state, gene location

  • AR
  • ==> anemia (of varying degrees)
  • chromosome 11

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