UWorld_4.1 Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1 > UWorld_4.1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in UWorld_4.1 Deck (26)
1

Pulmonary consequences of LHF

  • ==> fluid accumulation in lungs ==> decreased compliance

2

Serum marker of malignant ovarian tumors

  • CA-125

3

b-hCG is elevated in ...

  • hydatiform mole
  • choriocarcinoma
  • gestational trophoblastic tumors

4

Primary polydipsia vs. DI

  • @ water deprivation
    • DI ==> 300-500 urine osm
      • neurogenic ==> >50% increase w/DDVAP
      • nephrogenic ==> <50% increase w/DDVAP
    • primary polydipsia ==> >500 urine osm
      • <10% increase w/DDVAP

5

Tx of idiopathic pulmonary HTN

Bosentan = endothelin antagonist ==> vasodilation @ pulm. artery

6

Gut ulcer location that is least likely to be assoc. with cancer

duodenal

7

Cells & cytokines involved in granuloma formation (e.g. @ TB)

  • macrophages ==> IL-12 & TNF-alpha 
  • IL-12 ==> TH1 formation ==> INF-gamma

8

Sotalol: MOA, SE

  • MOA
    • K+ channel blocker
    • + mild B-blocker effects
    • Class 3 anti-arrhythmic
      • amiodarone
      • ibutilide
      • dofetilide
  • SE
    • mild bradychardia
    • prolonged QT interval

9

Gout crystal composition/description

  • monosodium urate crystals
  • needle shaped/long
  • negatively birefringent under polarized light

10

Pseudogout crystals

  • calcium pyrophasphate

11

First-line drug for benign essential tremor + SE

  • Primidone ==> active metabolites = phenobarbitol (+ phenylethylmalonimide) ==> anticonvulsant effects
  • must monitor levels ==> AMS, sedations

12

Ezyme decreased & Enzyme elevated in L-N syndrome

  • X-linked deficiency in HGPRT = part of purine salvage pathway
  • ==> increased de novo purine synth ==> increased PRPP amidotransferase

13

CFTR channel type

ATP-activate chloride channel

14

Fructose metabolism in essential fructosuria

  • AR; generally asymptomatic; deficiency in fructokinase
    • ==> elevated fructose in urine
  • Fructose can enter glycolysis by fructose ==> fructose-1-P conversion by hexokinase

15

Lactose characteristics and normal breakdown

  • Lactose = disacc = galatactose + glucose
  • broken down by lactase (=type of B-galactosidase enzyme) @ brush border epithelial cells ==> galactose & glucose

16

Characteristics of secondary lactase deficiency

  • deficiency in lactase (B-galactosidase) due to recent gastroenteritis ==> destruction of epthelial cells
  • ==> GI distention, flatulence, diarrhea with lactose consumption

17

Swelling of one arm and one side of face ==> dx?

  • obstruction of brachiocephalic vein = drainage of lymph and subclavian
  • like SVC blockage, except unilateral

18

Most common cause of hypothyroid + histo appearance

  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis
  • mononuclear parencymal infilatrate w/well-developed germinal centers

19

Hyperthyroid sx that does not improve w/beta blockers

exopthalmos = due to fibroblast proliferation and ground substance production

20

Drug that ==> vasodilation + blocks platelet agg. used in PAD

Cilosotazol

21

Signs of reversible injury in cardiac myocytes

  • myofibril relaxation
  • disaggregation of polysomes (rRNA from mRNA)
  • dissaggregation of fibrillar and granular elements of nucleus
    • & chromatin clumping
  • glycogen loss

22

Signs of irreversible cell injury in cardiac myocytes

  • mitchondrial vacuolization (mitochondrial membrane damage)
  • plasma membrane damage
  • lysosomal membrane damage
  • nuclear condensation, fragmentation

23

Common markers of chronic alcohol consumption

  • macrocytosis (elevated MCV)
  • AST: ALT > 2
  • elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)

24

Drug to prevent vertical transmission of HIV

  • zidovudine = reverse transcriptase inhibitor (AZT)

25

Isoniazid: MOA, resistance

  • inhibits mycolic acid formation
  • must be processed by mycobacterial catalse-peroxidase to become active
  • resistance:
    • change mycolic acid structure/isoniazid binding site
    • decreased activity of catalase-peroxidase

26

Congenital Toxoplasmosis infection presentation

  • hydrocephalus
  • intracranial calcifications
  • chorioretinitis

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