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Flashcards in UWorld_1.14 Deck (8)
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1

Morphine: MOA

  • agonist @ Mu opioid receptors
  • Mu opoid receptors = GPCR ==>
    • activation of K channels ==> increased K efflux
    • ==> hyperpolarization ==> termination of pain signaling from nerves

2

uteric bud (embryonic structure) ==>

  • collecting system of kindey:
    • collecting tubules and ducts
    • major and minor calyces
    • renal pelvis
    • ureters
  • mesoderm ==> urogenital ridge ==> nephrogenic cord ==> mesonephros ==> metanephros (begins w/uteric bud) ==> kidney structures

3

metanephric mesoderm (embryonic) ==> ?

  • formation induced by penetration of uteric bud into mesoderm
  • forms: glomerulus, bowman's capsule, proximal tuble, LOH, distal convoluted tubule

4

"Maternally-inherited" = 

  • mitochondiral inheritance
  • passed only from mother ==> offspring

5

Important mitochondrial-inherited diseases

  • leber hereditary optic neuropathy = bilateral vision loss
  • myoclonic epilepsy w/ragged-red fibers
    • myoclonic seizures
    • myopathy w/exercise
  • mitochondrial encephalopathy w/lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS)

6

heteroplasmy definition

  • mixing of genetic material
  • commonly occurs in mitochondrial-inheritance ==> random distribution of mitochondria in daughter cells; some w/damaged mtDNA and some w/normal mtDNA ==>
  • clinic variability of disease expression

7

General characteristics of meningiomas

  • most common brain tumor in adults
  • occur adjacent to cerebral surface
  • arise  from arachnoid villi
  • benign and slow-growing
  • characteristics finding: psammoma body

8

Common locations and neuro impacts of meningiomas

  • near parasaggital cortex (near falx cerebri) ==> contralateral leg spasticity and paralysis 
  • near olfactory groove ==> H/A and anosmia
  • lateral convexity of hemisphere ==> hand/face motor issues

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