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Flashcards in UWorld_4.6 Deck (26)
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1

Classes of Dopamine agonists

  • ergot compounds
    • bromocriptine
    • pergolide
  • non-ergot compounds
    • pramipexole
    • ropinirole

2

CCl4 toxicity ==>

  • CCl4 oxidized by P450 ==> CCl3 = free radical that reacts with lipid membrane components
  • ==> fatty change and hepatocyte necrosis

3

Primidone: MOA, use

  • first line for benign essential tremor
  • breaks down to phenobarbitol <== must track levels to prevent toxicity/AMS

4

Mechanism of sympathetic transmission

  • generally: 2 neuron system from spinal cord
    • first neuron releases ACh @ nicotinic receptor @ sympathetic ganglion
    • second neuron releases NE @ various organs: heart, smooth m., nerve terminals)
  • exceptions:
    • adrenal medulla = one neuron releases ACh directly @ medulla ==> systemic epinephrine + NE release
    • sweat glands = second neuron releases ACh onto a muscarinic receptor
    • kidney vasculature = second neuron releases DA 

5

t1/2 = 

t1/2 = (Vd x ln2)/CL

ln2 = ~.7

6

common mechanism of carcinogenesis of chemical in human pody

  • many chemicals enter as pro-carcinogens
  • **oxidation by CYP450 system ==> carcinogen
    • e.g. cyp450 monooxogenase = present @ hepatic microsomes & ER of other cells

7

SGLT2 inhibitors: MOA, use, SE

  • e.g. canagliflozin, dapagliflozin
  • oral anti-diabetic agents
  • work to decrease proximal tubular reabsorption of glucose
  • SE
    • renal damage
    • UTIs
    • hypotension
    • **monitor Cr

8

E.coli virulence factors

  • LPS ==> IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha ==> bacteremia and sepsis
  • K1 capsular polysacc ==> prevents phago/complement lysis ==> neonatal meningitis
  • Vertoxon/Shiga-like ==> 60S inhibition => cell death ==> bloody diarrhea + HUS
  • Heat-labile/stable toxins ==> fluid and electrolyte secretion ==> watery diarrhea
  • P fimbraie ==> urothelial adherence ==> UTI

9

Amlodipine: MOA, use, SE

  • MOA: ca-channel blocker
  • use: HTN
  • SE: flushing and peripheral edema

10

Enzyme mutation ==> hyperglycemia in pregnancy

glucokinase = glucose sensor in pancreatic beta cells

11

Proton-pump i: e.g. and MOA

  • Omeprazole
  • Lansoprazole
  • MOA: acts on H+/K+ ATPase pump ==> inhibition of final common pathway of acid secretion
    • will decrease acid secretion in response to any stimulus

12

Product that accumulates in aging cells

lipofuscin = product of lipid peroxidation

13

HIV tx ==> fat redistribution/hyperglycemia

protease inhibitors (-navirs)

14

Antibiotic tx for lung abcess

clindamycin (for anaerobic coverage)

15

Nerves and vessels that supply ovary contained in...

suspensory ligament

16

Prophylaxis in HIV patients

  • TMP/SMX
    • PCP pneumo (@ <200 T cells)
    • Toxo (@ <100 T cells)
  • Azithromycin
    • MAC (@ <50 T cells)
  • Itraconazole
    • Histoplasma (@ <150 T cells)

17

Structure under 12th rib left side

kidney

18

Digoxin toxicity sx

  • GI
    • abdominal pain
    • N/V
    • anorexia
  • Neuro
    • fatigue
    • confusion
    • weakness
    • color vision alterations

19

Rubella virus type

toga virus

20

Estrogen impact on thyroid hormones

estrogen ==> decreased catabolism of TBG ==> increasted total T4 with normal thyroid fxn

21

marker for mast cell activation

histamine

tryptase

22

tryptophan forms...

serotonin

niacin (B3)

23

Fenoldapam: MOA

D1 agonist ==> arteriolar dilation + increased renal perfusion/diuresis

24

Low c1 esterase inhibitor ==>

  • elevated bradykinin
  • do not use ACE-i in these patients because ==> angioedema

25

Pseudomonas tx

  • Pen = Piperacillin; Ticeracillin
  • Ceph = Cefepime, Ceftazidime
  • Gentamicin
  • Cipro/Levofloxacin
  • Aztreonam
  • Imipenem

26

Common cause of lacunar infarcts

hypertensive arteriolosclerosis of small, penetrating arterioles

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