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Flashcards in UWorld_3.27 Deck (26)
1

Characteristics of restrictive lung disease

-decreased lung volumes -increased FEV1 due to increased elastic recoil (decreased compliance) & increased radial traction by fibrotic lung

2

Cells contained in TB granulomas

epithelial macrophages w/pale pink granular cytoplasm CD14 = cell marker

3

Structures @ retroperitoneum

1. vessels: abdominal aorta, IVC + branches 2. solid organs: pancreas (except tail), kidneys, adrenal glands 3. hollow organs: segment 2,3, and part of 4 of duodenum + asc/desc colon + rectum, ureters, bladder 4. vertebrae and pelvic m.

4

Histo description of Burkitt's

-medium-sized tumor cells (lymphocytes) -basophillic cytoplasm -proliferation fraction (Ki67 fraction) > 99%

5

Cause of warfarin skin necrosis

-Protein C deficiency -Protein C = natural anticoag completely depleted protein C ==> hypercoag state ==> thrombi @ microvasculature ==> skin necrosis

6

Characteristics of Criggler-Najar

-disruption in uncoj. bilirubin metabolism @ liver due to lack of UGT enzyme -UGT normally conjugates bilirubin with glucuronic acid - ==> unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia - unconj. bili bound to albumin ==> unable to be excreted by kidney ==> deposition in tissue - ==> brain deposition = kernicterus ==> severe jaundice, encephalopathy w/m. rigidity, seizures, lethargy ==> death

7

Molecules that increase insulin resistance in overweight individuals

-FFA -serum triglycerides

8

beta hydroxybutyrate =

-marker of insulin deficiency -present in DM1

9

Molecular mechanism of chemical interference with insulin receptor response

-**phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues** ==> decreased activity of insulin receptor ==> insulin resistance -e.g. TNF-a ; glucocorticoids; catecholamines; glucagon; FFA

10

High ethanol intake impact on glucose metabolism

-hypoglycemia + elevated intracell NADH ==> ethanol is being used as NRG source and gluconeo is inhibited -ethanol catabolism ==> production of NADH ==> favor conversion of pyruvate=>lactate and OAA=>malate -since OAA and pyruvate are gluconeogen intermediates; conversion to other molecules inhibits gluconeogen

11

High vs. low potency antipsychotics

high = fluphenazine, haloperidol low = chlorpromazine, thioridazine

12

Class of anti-arrhythmics that show "use-dependence" + example

-class I anti-arrhymics (Na-cahnnel blockers) -IC = strongest association w/Na; slow to leave ==> prolonged QRS, but no effect on overall AP ==> normal QT

13

Carbamazepime: MOA, use, SE

-MOA = blocks VSSC @ neurons -use = partial, partial complex, gen TC seizures + mood stabilizer -SE = bone marrow suppression

14

pleural thickening + calcifications @ lower lobes + small pleural effusion ==> dx?

abestosis

15

coal pneumo problems ==>

multiple discrete nodules @ upper lobes

16

silicon imapct @ pulm ==>

nodular densities + eggshell calcifications @ hilar nodes

17

pulmonary berylliuosus ==>

~sarcoidosis: non-caseating granulomas, enlarged hilar lymph, nodular infiltrates

18

Gq receptor pathway

1. binding ==> phospholipase C converts mem. phospho ==> IP3 & DAG 2. IP3 ==> increased Ca release from SR 3. Ca + DAG activate PKC 4. PKC phosphorylates 2nd mess ==> downstream effects

19

Burr cells and helmet cells indicate...?

mechanical/traumatic hemolysis; e.g. prosthetic valve

20

Ethambutol SE

optic neuritis, color blindness ,etc.

21

Location of absent ganglia in hirschprung

-narrowed rectum/rectosigmoid = lack autonomic -lack submucosa (meissner) and myenteric (auerbach) -ganglia will be absent in submucosal layer

22

Nitrate with highest bioavailability

isosorbide mononitrate

23

Neonatal complications of maternal DM during preg.

1. premature delivery 2. fetal macrosomia 3. congenital malformations: NTDs, CV, caudal regression 4. respiratory distress 5. transient hypoglycemia 6. polycythemia and hyperviscosity

24

Complications of pre-eclampsi

-DIC -acute fatty liver -ATN -HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelet count) ==> eclampsia = seizures

25

Location/risks assoc. with BRCA-1/BRCA-2 genes

-both = tumor suppressor genes -BRCA-1 @ chr. 17 ==> increased risk of breast + ovarian -BRCA-2 @ chr. 13 ==> increased risk of breast cancer

26

Structures @ risk in total abdominal hysterectomy

-ureters = contained w/in broad ligament and run just posterior to uterine arteries -==> post-surgical acute renal failure

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