Pathoma Carcinogenesis II Flashcards Preview

USMLE Step 1 > Pathoma Carcinogenesis II > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathoma Carcinogenesis II Deck (32)
1

Regulatory systems

Proto-oncogenes*** Tumor supressor genes Regulators of apoptosis

2

Proto-oncogenes

Mutated --> oncogenes lead to unregulated cell growth

3

Normal cell cycle

GF binds GF receptor sends signal via transducing molecule Signal to nucleus Cell cycle regulators/nuclear regulators activeted (G1 - S - G2 - M)

4

Oncogenes

GFs GF receptors Signal transducers Nuclear regulators Cell Cycle regulators

5

(Growth Factor oncogenes)

...

6

PDGF-beta(Platelet derived growth factor)

Astrocytoma (overexpression)

7

(Growth Factor receptor oncogenes)

...

8

ERBB2 (HER2-neu) (Epidermal GF receptor)

Breast cancer (amplification)

9

Tx HER2-neu breast cancer

Trastuzimab (Herceptin)

10

RET (Neural GF receptor)

Medullary Carcinoma of the thyroid (MEN2A/2B) (Sporadic carcinoma of the thyroid)

11

KIT (Stem cell GF receptor)

Gastointestinal stromal tumor

12

(Signal transducer oncogenes)

...

13

RAS gene family (GTP binding protein)

Carcinoma, melanoma, lymphoma (Point mutation) - 80% human tumors

14

RAS is assiated with GDP

Activated, then associated with GTP Turn back into GDP (shuts off)

15

GAP (GTPase associated protein)

turns off RAS (GTP-->GDP)

16

ABL (Tyrosine kinase)

CML (some ALL) (Overexpression)

17

t(9;22) (Philadelphia chromosome)

CML, (some ALL) ABL signal transducer oncogene

18

(Nuclear regulator oncogene)

...

19

c-MYC (transx factor)

Burkitt lymphoma t(8;14) Starry sky appearance

20

c-MYC translocation

t(8;14) - involves IgH Burkitt lymphoma

21

Starry sky appearance

Burkitt lymphoma t(8;14)

22

Ig heavy chain is on what chromosome?

14

23

MYC is on what chromosome?

8

24

N-MYC (transx factor)

Neuroblastoma

25

L-MYC (transx factor)

small cell Lung carcinoma

26

(cell sycle regulator oncogenes)

...

27

Cyclin D1

Mantle Cell lymphoma t(11;14)

28

t(11;14)

Mantle cell lymphoma

29

What does Cyclin D1 do?

allows from G1 to S phase

30

Cyclin D is on what chromosome?

11

31

CDK4 (cyclin dependent kinase)

Melanoma (amplification)

32

Most highly regulated phase of cell cycle

G1-->S

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