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Flashcards in UWorld_3.16 Deck (27)
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1

How long till continuous infusion or drug reaches  steady state?

  • IF: continuous infusion + elimination via first-order kinetics ==>
  • steady state plasma concentration @ 4-5 half lives

2

Stages of arrest of oocytes

  • @ fetus: oocytes progress ==> prophase I and are arrested until ovulation
  • @ ovulation: oocytes progress ==> metaphase II and first polar body released until fertilization

3

t(15:17)

  • AML
  • retinoic acid receptor (17) placed next to PML gene on 15
  •  

4

Giardia pathogenesis & immune response

  • Giardia attaches to intestinal brush border + release toxins ==> inflammation and diarrhea
  • Secretory IgA prevents adherence <== most important immune response in combating Giardia
    • CD4+ helper T cells also involved in combating infection

5

Presentation of ethylene glycol toxicity

  • ethylene glycol metabolized ==> glycolic acid & oxalic acid
  • anion-gap metabolic acidosis
  • calcium oxalate crystals in urine
  • increased osmolar gap
  • acute kidney injury/renal failure
    • damage to tubular epithelium
      • vacuolization
      • ballooning

6

Characteristics of AFib rhythm

  • absent P waves
  • narrow QRS complexes
  • irregularly, irregular R-R intervals
  • repeated/frenetic electrical impulses through atria that lead to inneficient contraction of the atria
  • ventricles contract after electrical impulse passes through AV node
    • AV node refractory period determines rate/number of electrical impulses from artria that result in contraction of the ventricles

7

Common cause/consequences of long thoracic nerve injury?

  • mastectomy
    • or any trauma to the axilla area
  • ==> paralysis of serratus anterior
    • ==> winging of scapula
    • ==> inability to abduct arm above horizontal

8

Presentation of theophylline toxicity + tx

  • theophylline ==>
    • N/V + abdominal pain
    • arrhythmias
    • seizures **
  • Tx
    • gastric lavage
    • activated charcoal
    • cathartics (increase elimination via GI tract)
    • beta-blockers ==x arrhythmias
    • benzodiazepines & baribituates ==x seizures

9

Lithium: indications, side effects

  • bi-polar; manic and depressive episodes, maintenance
  • SE
    • DI
    • tremor
    • hypothyroidism
    • Epstein's anomaly

10

Valproate: indications, SE

  • manic episodes; maintence in bipolar & generalized/absence/myclonic seizures
  • SE
    • hepatotox
    • NTDs

11

Carbamazepine: indications, SE

  • manic episodes, maintence
  • partial generalized seizures
  • trigeminal neuralgia
  • SE
    • agranulocytosis
    • NTDs
    • hyponatremia (SIADH)

12

Lamotrigine: indications, SE

  • depressive episodes, maintenance in bipolar
  • focal seizures
  • SE
    • stevens-johnson
    • benign rash

13

Mood stabilizers in bipolar

  • lithium
  • valproate
  • carbamazepime
  • lamotrigine

14

Lab test: mix serum w/cholesterol, lethicin, and cardiolipin ==> flocculation?

  • test looking for antibodies to cardiolipin <== released in to serum after cellular destruction of Treponema species
  • indicates possible Syphillis infections

15

Sepsis/shock ==> pulmonary problems?

  • ARDS = fluid accumulation @ alveoli

16

Pathophys ==> wedge-shaped necrosis @ lung?

pulmonary embolus

17

Ornithine role in cellular metabolism

  • involved in the urea cycle
  • ornithine transported into mitochondria in oder to help break down ammonium
  • defect in ornithine ==> problems with protein metabolism

18

Child w/gray pharyngeal exudates + cervical lymphadenopathy ==> dx + mechanism

  • Corynebacterium diptheria
    • gram + bacillus
  • diptheria toxin = AB exotoxin ==> inactivation of EF2 via ADP-ribosylation = interrupted protein synthesis ==> pseudomembrane formation

19

Prevention and complications of diptheria infection

  • prevention = vaccine w/diptheria toxoid
  • complications
    • suffocation due to colonization/pseudomembrane
    • neurotoxicity
    • myocarditis/heart failure 

20

Cell types that contain telomerase

  • stem cells
    • e.g. epithelial basal cells
    • e.g. gastric lining stem cells
    • e.g. bone marrow stem cells
  • cancer cells

21

Micro characteristics of Legionella

  • intracell motile gram (-) rod
  • weakly stains with gram stain, silver stains improve visualization
  • grows on buffered charcoal yeast extract agar w/ supplemation by L-cysteine and iron

22

Use/Effects:

Physostigmine vs. Neostigmin vs. Edrophonium

  • all AChE inhibitors
  • use = reverse atropine toxicity
  • neostigmine/edrophonium = only fxn @ peripherphy; cannot penetrate CNS
  • physostigmine = fxns @ periphery & CNS

23

Etanercept: MOA, SE

  • MOA = TNF-a inhibitor
    • used in mod/sever RA, esp. @ patients who have failed methotrexate
  • SE
    • can reactivate latent TB infection <== PPD skin test for latent TB

24

Adverse effects of thionamides (antithyroid drugs)

  • ==> agranulocytosis
  • methimazole: teratogen; cholestasis
  • propthiouracil: hepatic toxicity; ANCA-assoc. vasculitis

25

Adverse effects of:

radioactive ablation of thyroid

thyrectomy

  • radioiodine
    • permanent hypothyroid
    • worsening opthalmo
    • radiation se
  • surgery
    • permanent hypothyroid
    • recurrent laryngeal nerve injury
    • hypoparathyroidism

26

Characteristic's of Friedrich's Ataxia

  • trinucleotide repeat; AR; gene locus on chromosome 9
  • abnormal mitochondrial fxn ==> degeneration of spinal tracts and peripheral nerves
  • spincerebellar tracts degen ==> abnormal gait
  • dorsal degen ==> loss of vibration/position
  • kyphoscoliosis & foot abnormalities
  • hypertrophic cardiomyopathy ==> heart failure
  • DM

27

calories in 1g protein, carb, fat

  • 1 g carb or protein = 4 cal
  • 1 g fat = 9 cal

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