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Flashcards in history: chpt. 10 test Deck (124):
0

Sun-centered model of the universe

Heliocentric

1

Egg-shaped

Elliptical

2

Law of universal attraction

Gravity

3

His observations suggested that planets had substance

Galileo

4

He developed laws of planetary motion

Kepler

5

The scientific method was all of the following EXCEPT…

A. Systematic procedure
B. Based on collecting and analyzing evidence
C. Reliant on the use of ancient authorities
D. Crucial to the evolution of science

C. Reliant on the use of ancient authorities

6

Inductive reasoning involved

Proceeding from the particular to the general

7

René Descartes believed in one absolute truth,

His own existence

8

Rationalism is the belief that

Reason is the chief source of knowledge

9

Francis Bacon, who developed the scientific method, was a

Philosopher

10

Philosophers, writers, economists, social reformers

Philosophes

11

System of political limits and controls

Separation of powers

12

To let (people) do (what they want)

Lasses-faire

13

Idea that God lets the universe run by its own laws

Deism

14

Interests of the Physiocrats and Adam Smith

Natural economic laws

15

In "The Wealth of Nations", Adam Smith gave all of the following roles to government EXCEPT…

A. Protection (the army)
B. Defense (the police)
C. Religion (the church)
D. Public works

C. Religion (the church)

16

Rousseau argued that society should be governed by…

A. The military
B. The church
C. A monarch
D. A social contract

D. A social contract

17

Rousseau believed in all of the following EXCEPT…

A. Balance of heart and mind
B. Abolition of the church
C. Rule of the general will
D. Education fostering natural instincts

B. Abolition of the church

18

Diderot's Encyclopedia was used to…

Attack religious superstition

19

Montesquieu's ideas were used in

The United States Constitution

20

New, graceful, enthusiastic artistic style of the 1730s

Rococo

21

Handel's best known religious work

Messiah

22

Monarchical rule by Enlightenment principles

Enlightened absolutism

23

Traditional Austrian empress

Maria Theresa

24

Alliance of France, Austria, and Russia

Diplomatic revolution

25

All of the following were outcomes of the Seven Years' War in North America EXCEPT…

A. France gave Louisiana to Spain
B. Spanish Florida came under British control
C. Canada became British
D. The 13 colonies became British

D. The 13 colonies became British

26

In the War of Austrian Succession,

Prussia invaded Austria

27

The concern of eighteenth monarchs for a balance of power involved all of the following EXCEPT…

A. Desire for peace
B. Larger armies
C. Expanded territory
D. Preventing domination by one state

A. Desire for peace

28

Catherine the Great of Russia did all of the following EXCEPT…

A. Favor the landed nobility
B. Expand serfdom
C. Enlarge the Russian
D. Reform the law code

D. Reform the law code

29

Frederick the Great of Prussia,

Enlarged the army

30

Offspring of Africans and Europeans

Mulattoes

31

Offspring of Europeans and Native Americans

Mestizos

32

Major intent of Spanish and Portuguese conquerors

Christianizing

33

British tax on certain printed materials

Stamp Act

34

Sharing of power between national and state governments

Federal system

35

The first American constitution was the,

Articles of confederation

36

The three branches of the national government were the…

Judicial, executive, legislative

37

The first constitution gave the national government…

Too little power

38

The second Continental Congress approved a…

Declaration of Independence

39

The Union of England and Scotland in 1707 created

The United Kingdom of Great Britain

40

Earth is at the center of the universe

Geocentric

41

The geocentric model of the universe that prevailed in the Middle Ages; named after the astronomer Ptolemy, who lived,in Alexandria during the second century

Ptolemaic system

42

Sun-centered

Heliocentric

43

Explains why the planetary bodies do not go off in straight lines but instead continue in elliptical orbits about the sun

Universal Law of Gravitation

44

The belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge

Rationalism

45

A systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence

Scientific method

46

Scientists should proceed from the particular to the general

Inductive reasoning

47

Lived in the second century, was the greatest astronomer of antiquity; constructed the Ptolemaic system

Ptolemy

48

Was a native of Poland, published "On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres"; he was a mathematician and believed the universe was heliocentric

Nicholas Copernicus

49

Taught mathematics; was the first took make regular observations of the heavens using a telescope; believed the planets had substance

Galileo Galilei

50

Attended _____, and later became a mathematics professor there. He wrote, "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", simply known as "Principia"

Issac Newton; Cambridge University

51

One of the first scientists to conduct controlled experiments

Robert Boyle

52

One of the most prominent female scientists of the seventeenth century, came from an aristocratic family; wrote many works including "Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy"

Margaret Cavendish

53

Most famous female astronomer in Germany; discovered the comet; applied for a position as assistant astronomer at Berlin Academy, but was die iced the post because she was a woman without a degree

Maria Winkelmann

54

French philosopher; father of rationalism

René Descartes

55

Developed the scientific method, but was a philosopher; believed scientists should use inducting reasoning

Francis Bacon

56

Where Nicholas Copernicus was from

Poland

57

Where Vesalius went to college, the University of ____

Padua

58

Contrast the Ptolemaic, or geocentric, system of the universe to the heliocentric system developed by Copernicus

Ptolemaic's geocentric idea is the the universe is when Earth is at the center of the universe and Copernicus's heliocentric idea is when the sun is at the center of the universe

59

List the pioneers of modern chemistry who lived during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries

Robert Boyle, Andreas Vesalius, Antoine Lavoisier, Margaret Cavendish, and Maria Winkelmann

60

The intellectuals of the enlightenment

Philosophe

61

The executive, legislative, and judicial powers of the government limit and control each other in a system of checks and balances

Separation of powers

62

An 18th century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law

Deism

63

Literally, "Let (people) do (what they want)," the concept that the state should not impose government regulations but should leave the economy alone

Laissez-faire

64

Society agrees to be governed by its general will

Social contract

65

Elegant drawing rooms of the wealthy upper class's great urban houses

Salon

66

Influence the enlightenment; thought that we were born with blank minds (tabula rasa) and molded by the experiences that came through our senses from the surrounding world

John Locke

67

One of the three French Giants; came from the French nobility; wrote The Spirit of the Laws in 1748. He believed that England's government had three branches: the executive (a monarch), the legislative (parliament), and the judicial (the courts of law)

Montesquieu

68

The greatest figure of the enlightenment; a Parisian. He fought against religious intolerance in France. In 1763 he penned is Treatise on Toleration, and what is your many governments that "all men are brothers under God."

Voltaire

69

Went to the University of Paris; became a freelance writer so that he could study and reading many subjects and languages. His best famous contribution to the Enlightenment was the Encyclopedia.

Diderot

70

Made the best statement of laissez-faire in 1776 in his most famous work "The Wealth of Nations". He believed that the government should: protect society (the army); defend citizens (the police); and keep up with public works

Adam Smith

71

Wrote "The Social Contract in 1762 and believed in the social contract

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

72

Was an English writer who advance the strongest statement for the rights of women. Wrote "A Vindication of the Rights of Women."

Mary Wollstonecraft

73

His work included Methodism; was an Anglican minister

John Wesley

74

Where Dennis Diderot attended college

Paris

75

Where the newspapers were first printed in 1702

London

76

Explain the influence of Isaac Newton and John Locke on the Enlightenment thinkers.

Newton's ideas – the physical world and everything in it was like a giant machine. Using Newton's methods people believed that they could discover natural laws to produce to society
Locke's ideas – that every person was born with a blank mind. People are molded by the experiences that came from the surrounding world

77

List the primary occupations of the philosophes

Writers, professors, journalists, economics, and above all, social reformers

78

New artistic style that spreading the 1730s

Rococo

79

Rulers tried to govern by enlightenment principles while maintaining their royal powers

Enlightened absolutism

80

A renowned organist as well as a composer he spent most of his life in Germany. He composed his "Mass in B Minor" and other works gave him the reputation of being one of the greatest composers of all time

Johann Sebastian Bach

81

A German who spent most of his career in England; best known for his religious music. His greatest work was "Messiah"

George Frederick Handel

82

Spent most of his adult life as A musical director for wealthy Hungarian princes. Composed "The Creation" and "The Seasons"

Franz Joseph Haydn

83

A child prodigy; he wrote "The Marriage of Figaro", "The Magic Flute", and "Don Giovanni", which are three of the world's greatest operas.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

84

One of the best educated in most cultured monarchs in the 18th century

Frederick the great

85

A traditional Austrian Empress who inherited the throne in 1740 and work to centralize the Austrian empire and strengthen the power of the state

Maria Theresa

86

Emerged from the death of her husband Peter the third and ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796.

Catherine the great

87

Major European powers in the 18th century

Prussia, Austria, Russia

88

Austrian country; what the War of Austrian Succession was fought over

Silesia

89

Describe the characteristics of an ideal enlightened ruler. Do any of the 18th century rulers discussed in this section have the characteristics of an ideal ruler?

Frederick the second, Catherine the second, and Maria Theresa were selfish. They were chiefly guided by a concern for the power and well-being of their state. Joseph the second sought truly radical changes based on enlightenment ideas, so he showed the characteristics of an idea

90

List all the countries in the world that fought in the Seven Years' War. Which country gained the most territory?

Britain, Prussia, Austria, Russia, and France/Britain gained the most territory

91

Europeans and Native Americans offspring

Mestizos

92

Africans and Europeans offspring

Mulattoes

93

Power is shared between the national government and the state government

Federal system

94

A nun who urged that women be educated

Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz

95

Served as head of the cabinet (later called the prime minister) from 1712 to 1742 and pursued a peaceful foreign-policy

Robert Walpole

96

In 1714, a new dynasty—_____—was established when the last Stuart ruler, Queen Anna died without an heir

Hanoverians

97

Located in south America; Portugal came to dominate it in the 16th century

Brazil

98

Located in Virginia; the last battle of the Revolutionary war was fought, the British surrendered, and the Treaty of Paris was signed

Yorktown

99

Explain the role of the Catholic Church and it's missionaries and colonial Latin America

They Christianize natives, though cathedrals, hospitals, orphanages, and schools for the colonies, and they allowed women to become nuns

100

List of freedoms guaranteed under the American Bill of Rights

1. Freedom of speech
2. Freedom of religion
3. Freedom of the press
4. Freedom of petition
5. Freedom of the assembly
6. The right to bear arms
7. To be protected against unreasonable searches 8. To be protected against unreasonable arrests
9. Guaranteed trial by jury, due to process of law 10. Protection of property rights

101

A systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence

Scientific method

102

The idea that earth is at the center of the universe is called a blank or blank system

Geocentric or Ptolemaic

103

In the Americas, the offspring of European and American native peoples were called…

Mestizos

104

A new type of monarchy called blank was influenced by reform-minded Philosophes

Enlightened absolutism

105

In the blank, power is shared between the national government and state government

Federal system

106

When scientists proceed from the particular to the general they are using…

Inductive reasoning

107

The belief that the sun is at the center of the universe is called a blank theory

Heliocentric

108

The intellects, or thinkers, of the enlightenment, were generally called…

Philosophes

109

Descartes is known as the father of…

Rationalism

110

The doctrine that maintains the state should not intervene in economics is called…

Laissez-faire

111

What was the enlightenment

In 18th-century philosophical movement of intellectuals who were greatly impressed with the achievements of the scientific revolution

112

Name two of the three groups that officially ran the 13 British colonies in North America

British Board of trade and the Royal Council; the other was Parliament

113

According to Adam Smith, what was the proper role of government in society

1. Protect society (the army)
2. Defend the citizens (the police)
3. Keep up with public works

114

Name to early 18th century composers who have stood out as musical geniuses of the Baroque style

Bach and Handel

115

What country challenged Spanish power in the Americas

Britain

116

What did Henry Fielding write about in his novels? What was his most popular work?

He wrote about people without morals to survive by their wits/"The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling"

117

How did Newton explain the universal law of gravitation

Newtons world machine, one universal law explains all motion in the universe

118

Why is Mary Wollstonecraft often considered the founder of the modern women's movement

She made the strongest statement for the rights of women

119

And his "Essay Concerning Human Understanding" what ideas did John Locke propose?

Every person is born with a blank mind and molded by their experiences

120

What was the major accomplishment of the second Continental Congress

They approved the Declaration of Independence

121

Wrote Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of Mankind

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

122

Wrote Discourse on Method

Rene Descartes

123

Wrote Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy

Margaret Cavendish

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