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Microscopic prokaryotes most are beneficial to humans and to the environmental, but small percentage can cause disease

Bacteria

1

Outer protein layer that surrounds the genetic material of a virus

Capsid

2

Dormant bacterial cell able to survive for long periods of time during extreme environmental conditions

Endospore

3

Process in which NAD+ is regenerated, allowing cells to maintain glycolysis in the absence of oxygen

Fermentation

4

Organism that cannot make its own food and gets its nutrients and energy requirements by feeding on other organisms; also called a consumer

Heterotroph

5

Hairlike, submicroscopic structure made of protein that can help a bacterial cell attach to environmental surfaces and act as a bridge between cells

Pili

6

Protein that can cause infection or disease

Prion

7

Microscopic, unicellular organism without a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles

Prokaryote

8

RNA virus, such as HIV, with reverse transcriptase in its core

Retrovirus

9

Nonliving strand of genetic material that cannot replicate on its own, has a nucleic acid core, a protein coat, and can invade cells and alter cellular function

Virus

10

The adding of dyes to identify the types of bacteria

Gram stain

11

Heterotrophic eubacteria that obtains their energy by decomposing organic molecules associated with dead organisms or organic waste

Saprotrophs

12

Bacteria that requires the use of oxygen to grow

Aerobes

13

How is bacteria identified?

Shape, cell wall, and movement. There are three shapes of bacteria, cocci (round), bacilli (rod shaped), spirilli (spiral shaped). They are also identified by their cell walls. Gram stains help identify the two major types of bacteria. Lastly, they are identified by their movement. Some are stationary, some move using flagella, and other move over secreted slime.

14

How do Bacteria reproduce?

Bacteria reproduce by asexual processes called binary fission. In this process, the cell is divided and the chromosome replicates. Then the cells form a cell wall and become two identical cells. Some bacteria reproduce by conjugation. Conjugation is when two bacteria attach and exchange genetic information.

15

What are the benefits of bacteria?

They keep you alive because they fertilize fields, recycle nutrients, protect the body, and produce foods and medicines.

16

How do viruses reproduce?

The virus enters the host cell. The virus attaches to the host cell using specific receptors. Once it attaches, the genetic material enters the cytoplasm. The virus now uses the host cell to replicate by either the lytic cycle or the lysogenic cycle

17

What are the benefits of a virus?

Viruses are not always destructive. Some make you immune to other germs. For example, the cowpox virus injection can make you immune to the smallpox.

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