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Flashcards in science test on processes Deck (60):
0

Cellular respiration has three cycles....

Glycolysis, Kreb's Cycle, Electron Transport Chain

1

Process that unzips, copies to make RNA and then goes to the ribosome

Transcription

2

Takes mRNA and makes proteins, mRNA goes to the ER to be _________, and tRNA brings over the amino acids, it goes codon by codon

Translated

3

What brings over amino acids during translation?

tRNA

4

MRNA goes to ____ to be translated

Endoplasmic Reticulum

5

Transcription uses _____ to unzip

DNA Helicase

6

Translation uses _____ to copy

RNA Polymerase

7

What are the steps of mitosis?

Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase and Cytokinesis

8

The cell has completed replication as well as replication of centrioles and mitochondria and synthesis of extra membrane. It has divided, grown, and duplicated so two daughter cells can form from one cell at the end of this phase. It is a time of great synthetic activity. During this phase it obtains nutrients, and utilizes them to manufacture new living material. The cell duplicates membranes, ribosomes, lysosomes, and mitochondria. It also replicates the genetic material. This is important so the two daughter cells can have a complete set of genetic instructions. Is considered in phases, DNA replication occurs in S (synthesis), which is split into growth periods, G1 and G2 when other structures are duplicated

Interphase

9

Chromosomes condense and become visible. The centrioles replicate of the centrosome replicate just before mitosis. During this phase, the two newly formed centrioles pairs move to opposite ends of the cell. Nuclear envelope and nucleolus disperse. Microtubules are assembled from tubulins proteins in the cytoplasm and associate with the centrioles and chromosomes. Spindle apparatus forms

Prophase

10

Chromosomes align along equator as a result of microtubule activity. Spindle fibers attach to the centromeres of each chromosome so that a fiber from one pair of centrioles contacts one centromere and a fiber from the other pair of centrioles attaches to the other centromere

Metaphase

11

Sister chromatids separate to opposite poles of the cell. As the chromatids separate, they become individual chromosomes. The separated chromosomes now move in opposite directions, once again guided by microtubule activity. The spindle fibers shorten and pull their attached chromosomes toward the centrioles at opposite ends of the cell

Anaphase

12

In this stage the chromosomes complete their migration toward the centrioles. It is like the reverse of prophase. As chromosomes approach the centrioles they elongate and unwind. Nuclear envelopes begin to resemble around two daughter nuclei. Chromosomes decondense. Spindle disappears. Division of the cytoplasm into two cells.

Telophase and Cytokinesis

13

Blank is the master plan and blank is the blueprint of the master plan

DNA; RNA

14

Blank has a sugar ribose, contains Uracil, and is single stranded

RNA

15

Blank has sugar deoxyribose, contains thymine, and is double stranded

DNA

16

What are the three types of RNA

mRNA, rRNA, tRNA

17

Copies DNA codes and carries genetic info to ribosomes

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

18

Along with proteins it makes of ribosomes

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

19

Transfers amino acids to the ribosomes where proteins are synthesized

Transfer RNA (tRNA)

20

Contains genes, sequences of nucleotide bases

DNA

21

Genes are code for ______

polypeptides (proteins)

22

______are used to build cells and do much of the work inside cells

Proteins

23

There are ____ amino acids

20

24

_______ is the third level of proteins

Tertiary

25

Amino acid chains are also called _____

Polypeptides

26

Proteins are made in the _____ of cells by the organelle ______

Cytoplasm; ribosome

27

In what process is DNA copied and taken to the cytosol, n the cytoplasm it is read so amino acids can assemble to make proteins

Protein synthesis

28

What is the first step of protein synthesis

Transcription

29

What is the second step of protein synthesis

Translation

30

Where does transcription occur

Nucleus

31

Where does translation occur

Cytoplasm

32

Nitrogen bases are read ___ bases at a time

Three

33

The bases on the mRNA strand are called

Codons

34

The bases on tRNA are called

Anti-codons

35

What is the start codon in translation

AUG – methionine

36

What are the stop codons of translation

UAA, UAG, UGA

37

During translation,
C=?
G=?
A=?
T=?

G, C, U, A

38

How many different kinds of bases can be found on DNA

Four; thymine, adenine, cytosine, guanine

39

What goes into the Krebs cycle and what comes out

In: glucose -> pyruvic acid -> Acetyl CoA.
Out: 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP, and 4 CO2

40

One glucose molecule can be turned into

Two pyruvic acid molecules

41

Pyruvic acid can form

Two acetyl CoA

42

The _______ makes ___ ATP. _____ makes ___ ATP. Therefore a single glucose molecule makes ___ ATP.

Electron Transport Chain; 34; Glycolysis; 2; 36

43

The breaking down of Lucas that occurs in the cytosol because it does not require oxygen

Glycolysis

44

The high-energy electrons still contain most of the chemical energy from the original glucose molecule. Special carrier molecules bring the high energy electronics to a series of enzymes that store much of the remaining energy in more ATP molecules. The other products are heat and water. The function of oxygen as the final electron acceptor is why ____ is an aerobic process

ETC

45

What is the equation for cellular respiration?

C6 H12 O6 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O + ATP

46

Long straight chain of nucleotides, made in the nucleus, copies DNA and leaves through nuclear pores, contains A, G, C ,U (not T),

mRNA

47

Another name for Kreb's cycle is

Citric Acid Cycle

48

DNA is found where

Nucleus

49

Amino acids are linked together by

Peptide bonds

50

Maybe free-floating in the cytosol or attached to the surface of the rough ER

Ribosome

51

DNAs code must be copied and taken to the _____

Cytosol

52

In the cytoplasm, the DNA must be read so amino acids can be assembled to make _____

Polypeptides or Proteins

53

The process of amino acids making proteins are polypeptides is called what

Protein synthesis

54

Carries the information for a specific protein and is made up of 500 to 1000 nucleotides long

Messenger RNA

55

Making RNA from DNA

Transcription

56

Assembling amino acids according to the sequence of an mRNA strand

Translation

57

Protein synthesis involves what organelles

Nucleus, cytoplasm, ribosome

58

Cellular respiration involves what organelles

Mitochondria

59

Mitosis involves what organelles

Centrioles and nucleus

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