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Flashcards in history: chpt. 3 test Deck (30)
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Leader of the new Roman Empire; attempted to rule both German and Italian lands; tried to create a new kind if empire; planned to get his chief revenues from Italy which he considered the center of a "holy empire"; his attempt to conquer northern Italy was opposed by the pope and cities of northern Italy who were unwilling to become his subjects.

Frederick the second


His reign is described as the golden age of the Abbasid caliphate; known for his charity and lavish support on artists and writers

Harun al-Rashid


The power of English monarchy was greatly enlarged under his rule; reigned from 1154-1189; he increased the number of criminal cases tried in the kings court; the body of common law was formed under his reign

Henry the second


Outstanding Arabic philosopher who wrote commentaries on virtually all of Aristotle's surviving works



Also known as Nubia; emerged as one of the major trading states in the region; flourished from about 250 BC-AD 150 but declined because of the rise of Axum.



Zhu Yuanzhang, raised an army, ended the Mongol dynasty, and set up a new dynasty, ______________

The Ming Dynasty


His reign (1180-1223), was the turning point in the growth of the French monarchy; he waged war against the rulers of England, who also ruled a number of French territories. He gained control of most of these territories and by doing this he expanded the of the French monarchy and greatly increased its power.

Phillip the second Augustus


Hindu warriors; resisted against the advances of Mahmud



Ruled during a period of economic prosperity and cultural achievement, from 960-1279; from the start they experienced problems; they moved the imperial court to south to Hangzhou; they couldn't overcome there problems. During the 1200s, the Mongols carried out wars. The Mongols overthrew the Song and created a new Mongol dynasty.

Song Dynasty


Leader of the Songhai kingdom; created the Sunni dynasty in 1464; he spent much of his reign on horseback. His conquests gave Songhai control of the trading empire—especially in salt and gold. His policy of expansion was continued by Muhammad Ture

Sunni Ali


Ruler of a Mongol state based in Samarkand; born during the 1330s; seized power in 1369 and immediately launched a conquest. In the 1380s he placed the entire region east of the Caspian Sea under his authority and then occupied Mesotpotamia. He died in 1405

Timur Lenk


Genghis Khan's grandson; completed the conquest of the Song and est. a new Chinese dynasty, the Yuan, or Mongol. Est. his capital at Khanblaiq in Northern (later became Beijing); under his leadership the Mongol dynasty continued to expand.

Kublai Khan


One of the three major groups of a Central Europe; formed the Polish and Bohemian kingdoms.

Western Slavs


About AD 330, King Ezana converted to Christianity and made it the official religion of ____ (located in the highlands of what is now Ethiopia). Until the 12th century the relationship b/w ____ Christians and its Muslim neighbors were relatively peaceful. Then conflict arose when the Muslims tried to gain control of the trade ____ had dominated for hundreds of years.



Was the wealthiest and most powerful state in the region from 3000 to 1450; it prospered from gold trade with the trading communities on the eastern coast of the continent. The ruins of ________ (Great ________) illustrate the kingdoms power and influence. The town still sits on the hill overlooking the Zambezi River and is surrounded by stone walls



Nomadic people from Central Asia; converted to Islam and prospered as soldiers for the Abbasid caliphate. As the Abbasids grew weaker the __________ grew stronger; by the 11th century they had taken over the eastern provinces of the Abbasid Empire. In 1055 they captured Baghdad and took command of the empire; held real military and political power of the state.

Seljuk Turk


Temujin gradually unified the Mongols. He was elected ___________ in 1206. From that time on, he devoted himself to conquest. He created the largest empire in history. He set up a capital Karakorum. His kingdom was split into several territories, each under the rule of one of his sons when he died (1227). Means "strong ruler"

Genghis Khan


Abbasids new capital city on the Tigris River. The new capital was well placed. It was located on the caravan route from the Mediterranean Sea to Central Asia. Was capture in 1055 by a Turkish leader.



Capital of the Arab empire; Umayyad dynasty.



A prince that emerged more powerful than the others; prince of Novgorod. He was awarded the title of grand-prince by the leader of the western Mongol Empire. His descendants became leaders of all Russia.

Alexander Nevsky


Abu Bakr was ______________ or successor to Muhammad. Under his leadership, the Islamic movement began to grow. He defeated the Byzantine army in 636; took control of the Byzantine province of Syria four years later.

Muhammad's first caliph


What are the effects of Muslim culture on Europe?

-a serious challenge came about
-Islamic forces defeated the Eastern Roman Empire
-problems arose along the northern frontier as well
-by the beginning of the 8th century, the Eastern Roman Empire was much smaller (only Balkans and Asia Minor)


The first year in the Muslim calendar marks what?

The Hijrah-the journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah


Who were the nomads who carried goods across the desert with camels?

The Berbers


What were the basic building blocks of African society?

Lineage groups


Who conquered China in 1279?

Kublai Khan


What three things formed the European civilization?

1. Germanic peoples
2. Legacy of the Romans
3. Christian church


Know: Peasants during the Tang Dynasty

They were poor and most peasants never left their villages except for an occasional visit to a nearby market town.


Know: When Muslims ruled India

They tried to maintain a strict separation between the Muslim ruling class and the mass of the Hindu population. They were intolerant of other faiths, however, they used peaceful means to encourage people to convert to Islam. Muslim rulers imposed many Islamic customs on Hindu society.


Know: Crusades

Causes: Byzantine emperor asked for help against the Seljuk Turks and Pope Urban the second saw this as an opprotunity to prove his leadership for a great cause. That cause was the European liberation of Jerusalem and Palestine from the Muslims.
The first was the only successful one.
Effects: Historians think that yes Italian cities benefitted but even without the Crusades, Italian merchants would have pursued the Eastern works.

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