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They were founded by a Spanish priest, Dominic de Guzmán. Dominic wanted to defend the church teachings from heresy. This led to the creation of Inquisition, or Holy Office. Were especially we'll known for their roles as examiners of people suspected of heresy.



After having been captured and imprisoned during a local war, he has a series of dramatic spiritual experiences. These experiences led him to abandon worldly goods and material pursuits and to live and preach in poverty, working and begging for food. His love for others soon attracted a band of followers. They were founded by Saint Francis of Assisi.



Elected pope in 1037, he was convinced that he had been chosen by God to reform the Church. To pursue this aim, he claimed that the pope's authority extended over all the Christian world, including its rulers. He asserted the right of the church to appoint clergy and run its own affairs. If rulers didn't accept this the pope would remove them.

Gregory the seventh


During his papacy the 13th century, the Catholic Church reached the height of its power. His actions were those of a man who believed the he, the pope, was the supreme judge if European affairs. He forced the king of France, Philip Augustus, to take back his wife and queen after Philip had tried to have his marriage annulled.

Innocent the third


Merchants and artisans of cities or settlements that prospered and expanded, where new walls were built to protect it. Also known as burghers



Business associations



Caused by the existence of two popes and lasted from 1378 to 1417. This event divided Europe and resulted in the decline of Church power.

Great Schism


Agricultural estate run by a lord and worked by peasants



Peasants legally bound to the land who had to provide labor services, pay rents, and be subject to the lord's control



Medieval universities were guilds or ____________.



Know: Popular religious practices in the Middle Age

Monasticism, Cistercian monasticism, Catholic Church


Medieval cities were _____ compared to ancient cities.



_______________ between England and France was the most violet struggle during the Late Middle Ages. A simple peasant girl, Joan if Arc, helped the French armies finally bring an end to the war, which lasted from 1337 to 1453.

Hundred Years War


Embodied the new spiritual ideal of Cistercian monasticism: “Arise, soldier of Christ, arise! Get up off the ground and return to the battle from which you have fled! Fight more boldly after your flight, and triumph in glory!”

Saint Bernard


______ were fierce, warlike people. They also built pyramids and palaces. They controlled upper Yucatán peninsula form another capital at Chichén Itzá. There capital was Tula. The ______ declined and 1200.



_____ arrived around 1200 B.C. in Mesoamerica. It was located in hot and swampy lowlands along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico south if Veracruz. They farmed along the muddy river banks. They had large cities that were centers for their religious rituals. The _____ declined around 400 B.C.



Origins of the _____ are uncertain. Sometime during the 12th century, they began a long migration that brought them to the Valley of Mexico. They eventually est. their capital in 1325 at Tenochtitlán. They constructed temples, other public buildings, and houses. They built roadways of stone across Lake Texcoco. The _____ consolidated their rule over much of what is modern Mexico. By 1500 as many as 4,000,000 _____ lived in the Valley of Mexico. Power in the _____ state was vested in the hands of the monarch. _____ was destroyed by forces led by Cortés.



____ is located on the Yucatán Peninsula. It flourished between A.D. 300 and 900. One of the most sophisticated civilizations in the Americas. _____ cities were built around a central pyramid topped by a shrine to the gods. ____ was governed by a hereditary ruling class. ____ created hieroglyphics. Their calendar was called the Long Count, said to end December 23, 2012.



Urban centers believed to have had hundred thousand inhabitants.



Aztec's capital located on the island in the middle of Lake Texcoco, now the location of Mexico City.



The Aztec monarch that offered gifts of gold to the foreigners when they arrived.



The tip of South America; part of the enormous land area that the Americas make up that stretches to the Arctic Ocean.

Cape Horn


One of the different cultures of North America that developed flourishing societies that responded in their own unique ways to the environmental conditions that they faced.



Pizarro and his soldiers, aided by Incan allies, marched on to _____ and captured the Incan capital.



He arrived at the Inca Empire in 1531, with 180 of his Spanish men. He brought steel weapons, gunpowder, and horses. He and his soldiers, aided by Incan allies, marched to Cuzco and captured the Incan capital. By 1535 he had est. a new capital at Lima, for the new Spanish Empire.

Francisco Pizarro


Tensions arose between the Spaniards and the _____. Within a year, the forces of Cortés had destroyed the _____ pyramids, temples, and palaces. Tenochtitlán was no more.

Destroying of the Aztec capital


Know: Catholic Churches by centuries

5th-the popes of the Catholic Church claimed supremacy over affairs of the church. They also gained control if territories in central Italy (Papal States)
8th & 9th-the authority of the popes declined as the feudal lords became more powerful. Bishops and abbots obtained offices as grants from nobles, not the pope
11th-Church leaders realized the need to be free from interference of lords and the appointment for church officials. Pope Gregory the seventh was elected pope. He and Henry the fourth were in conflict.
14th-a series of problems led to the decline in the church's political and spiritual position.

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