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Flashcards in history: chpt. 11 test Deck (59):
0

One of the three classes into which French society was divided before the revolution: the clergy (first ____), the nobles (second ____), and the townspeople (third ____)

Estate

1

Aristocratic privileges

Relics of feudalism

2

Middle class

Bourgeoisie

3

Called the meeting of the Estates-General to raise new taxes

Louis XVI

4

Where the meeting of the Estates-General opened on May 5, 1789

Versailles

5

Deputies swore they would continue to meet until they had produced a French Constitution

Tennis Court Oath

6

Where Bastille, an armory and prison is located

Paris

7

On August 26, the National Assembly adopted the _____

Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

8

A woman who wrote plays and pamphlets, refused to accept the exclusion of women from political rights; she penned a Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen

Olympe de Gouges

9

Rulers of ____ and ____ threatened to use force to restore Louis XVI to full power

Austria and Prussia

10

Ordinary patriots with out fine clothes

Sans-culottes

11

Explain why the Catholic Church was targeted for reform.

It was seen as an important pillar of the old order

12

List the reasons for the near collapse of government finances in France

Social conditions, bad harvests, slow manufacturing, food shortages, rising prices, unemployment

13

Social commoners

Third Estate

14

Merchants, bankers, industrialists, professionals

Bourgeoisie

15

French parliament under Louis XVI

Estates-General

16

"Without breeches," members of the Paris Commune

San-culottes

17

The Second Estate did all of the following EXCEPT

A. Own from 25 to 39 percent of the land
B. Hold high positions in government and the military
C. Not pay taxes
D. Side with peasants

D. Side with peasants

18

The Paris Bastille was

An armory and prison

19

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen proclaimed all of the following EXCEPT

A. An end to tax exemptions
B. Freedom of speech
C. Equal rights for women
D. Freedom of the press

C. Equal rights for women

20

The National Assembly's Constitution of 1791, _____

Set up a limited monarchy

21

The Paris Commune demonstrated, then seized power for all of the following reasons EXCEPT

A. Defeats in war with Austria
B. Economic shortages
C. Loyalty to Prussia
D. Anger with the monarchy

C. Loyalty to Prussia

22

Minister of Justice for the Paris Commune

Georges Danton

23

Individuals qualified to vote

Electors

24

Sudden overthrow of government

Coup d'ètat

25

Dissenting groups

Factions

26

Upper legislative house under the Constitution of 1795

Council of Elders

27

The Reign of Terror set up revolutionary courts to prosecute

Enemies of the republic

28

The two dissenting groups within the National Convention were the

Girondins and the Mountain

29

During its rule, the government of the Directory was opposed by

Royalists and radicals

30

The Directory was eventually toppled by

Napoleon Bonaparte

31

The Committee of Public Safety was originally set up to

Defend France against foreign armies

32

Published a radical journal called "Friend of the People"

Jean-Paul Marat

33

A large network of political groups throughout France

Jacobin

34

A special committee of 12 that had been given broad powers by the National Convention

Committee of Public Safety

35

Eventually dominated the Committee of Public Safety

Maximilien Robespierre

36

Revolutionary courts were set up to prosecute internal enemies of the revolutionary republic. Close to 40,000 people were killed during this time

Reign of Terror

37

A city where 1,880 citizens were executed.

Lyon

38

The city where victims were executed by being sunk in barges in the Loire River

Nantes

39

Located in France, across the Rhine River; the republic's army conquered it

Austrian Netherlands

40

Explain the similarities and differences between the Girondins and the Mountain

Girondins represented provinces; feared radical mobs; and wanted Louis XVI alive
The Mountain represented interests of radical; and wanted Louis XVI dead

They both were members of the Jacobin club

41

List the members of the informal coalition that took up arms against France. What was the result of this conflict?

Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Britain, and the Dutch Republic. French armies fell back and France was invaded.

42

Dominated French and European history from 1799 to 1815

Napoleon Bonaparte

43

Napoleon's birthplace

Corsica

44

Napoleon's government after 1799

Consulate

45

Napoleon's unified law system

Civil Code

46

Laws a prominent writer; liked Napoleon at first but them called him a tyrant

Anne-Louise-Germaine de Staël

47

Unique cultural identity of a people

Nationalism

48

They city the Russians burned this city and when Napoleon's grand army arrived with no supplies they abandoned it

Moscow

49

The island Napoleon was first exiled to

Elba

50

Where Napoleon was defeated by the Duke of Wellington

Waterloo

51

Head over the British and Prussian army

Duke of Wellington

52

Explain how nationalism contributed to Napolean's defeat.

The spirit of the French nationalism had made possible mass armies of the revolutionary and Napoleonic eras. Napoleon brought nationalism with his new principles

53

List the powers Napoleon exercised as the first Consul

Controlled the government, army, foreign affairs, appointed members of the bureaucracy, and influenced legislature

54

Napoleon's Continental System was designed to

Stop British trade with Europe

55

Napoleon's military force was called the

Grand Army

56

Promotion within Napoleon's government and military was based on

Ability

57

Napoleon's agreement with the Catholic Church did all of the following EXCEPT

A. Recognize Catholicism as the majority religion of France
B. Return church lands to the pope and clergy
C. Make those who had purchased church land his supporters
D. Restore some stability to France

B. Return church lands to the pope and clergy

58

Napoleon's Civil Code treated women

As less than equal to men

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