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Flashcards in history: chpt. 8 test Deck (64):
0

Elite guard of the Ottoman Turks

Janissaries

1

Appointed officials who collected taxes, maintained law and order, and were directly responsible to the sultans court in Constantinople

Pashas

2

Empires United by outside conquerors

Gunpowder empires

3

The supreme authority in both a political and military sense

Sultan

4

Chief official of a sultan

Grand vizier

5

Ottoman religious, legal, and educational advisers

The Ulema

6

Residence of a sultan and his wives

Harem

7

Leader of the Ottomans

Mehmet the second

8

Took control of Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Arabia

Sultan Selim the first

9

Greatest Ottoman architect; built 81 mosques

Sinan

10

In the late 13th century, a new group of Turks under their leader Osman began to build power in the northwest corner of _____. It had been given to the Seljuk Turk rulers as a reward for helping the rulers defend their lands against the Mongols.

Anatolian Peninsula

11

The Ottomans expanded westward and eventually controlled _____ and _____. These two straits separated by the Sea of Marmara . Connect the Black Sea and Aegean Sea.

Bosporus; Dardanelles

12

Separates Bosporus and Dardanelles

Sea of Marmara

13

In Arabia, near the Red Sea; one of the holy cities of Islam

Makkah

14

Evaluate how the problems in the Ottoman Empire may have began during the reign of Süleyman the Magnificent.

Süleyman killed his two most table signs on the station of trees and, so he was succeeded by his only son left who wasn't as able as the other two sons.

15

Identify the four main occupational groups of the Ottoman Empire.

1. Peasants – farmed land
2. Artisans – organized by craft Guild
3. Merchants – most privileged group
4. Pastoral peoples – nomadic herders

16

The Ottoman Turks conquered all of the following except…

A. Constantinople
B. the Balkins
C. Spain
D. North Africa

C. Spain

17

The Ottoman Empire preferred to…

Administer their lands through local rulers and pashas

18

The Ottoman Empire after the death of sailor man was hurt by all the following except…

A. lack of training
B. Rise of a privilege group
C. Cost of constant force
D. The sack of Constantinople

D. The sack of Constantinople

19

Ottoman Turks mosques were designed with…

Domes and minarets

20

Ottoman art included…

Distinctive woven rugs

21

Persian King

Shah

22

Conformity to a traditional religious belief

Orthodoxy

23

Political disorder

Anarchy

24

Founded by Shah Ismail

Safavids

25

Founder of the Safavids, descendant of Safi al-Din

Shah Ismail

26

Ruled from 1588 to 1629. Safavids reached the high point of their glory under their rule

Shah Abbas

27

The most famous artist of the Persian painting period; created exquisite works on simple subjects, such as oxen plowing, hunters, and lovers.

Riza-i-Abbasi

28

In the early 14th century, Safi Al-Din had been the leader of a community of Turkish ethnic groups in _____, near the ______

Azerbaijan; Caspian Sea

29

The capital of the Safavids was moved from the northwestern city of _____ to the more centrally located city of _____

Tabriz; Isfahan

30

Describe how the Safavids tried to bring the various Turkish and Persian people together.

They tried to consolidate the rule over Persia and the areas to the west and use this Shiite faith as a unifying force

31

Summarize how the increased pressures of religious orthodoxy influence women's lives in the late Safavid dynasty.

Persian women who had considerable freedom during the early Empire were now forced to seclusion and required to adopt the wearing of a veil.

32

Islamic group to which the Safavids belonged

Shiite

33

Type of carpets highly priced in the west

Persian

34

The Shiites believed that the shah was…

A direct successor of Muhammad

35

Safavid shahs did all of the following except…

A. Follow Roman laws
B. Be more available to their subjects
C. Seize landed estates
D. Appoint officials based on merit

A. Follow Roman laws

36

Trade goods in the Safavid Empire were carried on a road system that was…

Fairly safe and enhanced with rest stops

37

Paintings by Razi-i-Abbasi,were characterized by all the following except…

A. Simple subjects
B. Soft colors
C. Flowing movements
D. Religious themes

D. Religious themes

38

Isfahan, Shah Abbas's capital featured…

A central polo ground

39

Local officials who kept a portion of taxes paid by the peasants in lieu of a salary

Zamindar

40

Cremating a widow on her husband's funeral pyre

Suttee

41

Founder of the Monguls whose father descended from Timur Lenk and mother descended from Genghis Khan

Babur

42

Barbur's grandson; 14 when he came to office. Probably the greatest of the conquering Monguls monarchs, but is best known for his humane character of his rule. He died in 1605

Akbar

43

The ultimate successor; reigned from 1628 to 1658; his troubles worsened with his illness in the mid-1650s. Aurangzeb, Shah Jahan's son, put his father in prison and crowned himself king.

Shah Jahan

44

Shah Jahan's son; had his brother put to death, inpisoned his father and crowned him self King. He also forbade both the Hindu customs of suttee.

Aurangzeb

45

In 1517, Babur led his forces across the _____ to India.

Khyber Pass

46

With 12,000 troops against an enemy force nearly 10 times that size, Baber captured _____ and established his power in the plains of north India.

Delhi

47

During Shah Jahan's reign from 1628 to 1658, he expanded the boundaries of the Empire through successful campaigns in the _____ and against the city of Samarkand, north of the Hindu Kush.

Deccan Plateau

48

Fort William is now the city of _____

Calcutta

49

_____ is now the city of Madras

Chennai

50

_____ was built in Arga by Shah Jahan, for his wife your dad and 39, giving birth to her 14th child

Taj Mahal

51

Where the Taj Mahal was built

Agra

52

Describe the impact of the Mongols on the Hindu and Muslim peoples of the Indian subcontinent. How did the reign of Aurangzeb weaken Mongul rule in India?

The Monguls brought a new era of unity to the region of the Indian subcontinent. Aurangzeb's policies lead to Hindu outcries, a number of revolts against imperial authority broke out, and threats to the emperors power. This left an increasingly divided India vulnerable to attack.

53

Summarize the problems Shah Jahan faced during his rule. How did the rule of Shah Jahan's end?

He failed to deal with growing domestic problems, he inherited a nearly empty treasury, and his military campaigns put a heavy strain on the Imperial finances. His reign ended when his son inprisoned him and had himself crowned emperor.

54

Founder of the Mogul dynasty in India

Babur

55

Private group representing the British crown

The East India Company

56

Underground prison used in 1756

Black Hole of Calcutta

57

Memorial to an Indian emperor's wife

Taj Mahal

58

Combined Persian-Indian motifs style of painting

“Akbar style”

59

The Moguls in India were foreigners who were also _____.

Muslims

60

By the late eighteenth century, Mogul prosperity was shaken by _____.

The coming of the British

61

Local, lower-ranking officials called zamindars did all of the following except...

A. Receive farm plots
B. Keep part of the taxes they collected
C. Exercise considerable power
D. Command small armies

D. Command small armies

62

Babur's forces entered India through the...

Khyber Pass

63

The British successes in India were achieved through the military genius of...

Sir Robert Clive

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