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Flashcards in science integumentary system test Deck (46):
0

What are the functions of skin

Protection (cushions, insulates, waterproof; protects from chemicals, heat, cold, bacteria; screens UV Rays)
Synthesizes Vitamin D w/ UV rays
Regulates body heat
Prevents unnecessary water loss
Sensory reception

1

What are the layers of skin (top layer to bottom layer)

Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosm, stratum spinosum, stratum basale

(C)ome (L)et's (G)et (S)un-(B)urned

2

Area of rapidly dividing cells; most melanocytes found here, single row of cuboidally shaped cells;

Stratum Basale

3

Langerhans cells abundant here; keratinocytes are spiny flattened

Stratum spinosum

4

Stratum begins where keratinization begins; keratohyalin present

Stratum granulosm

5

Clear translucent layer; found only on the palms and soles

Stratum lucidum

6

Cells are plasma membranes filled with keratin; 20-40 layers thick of dead cells

Stratum corneum

7

What are the cells involved in skin

Keratinocytes, Melanocytes, Merkel Cells, Langerhans Cells

8

Deepest, produce keratin (tough fibrous proteins)

keratinocytes

9

Produce melanin

Melanocytes

10

Associated with sensory nerve endings

Merkel cells

11

Macrophage-like dendritic cells

Langerhans cells

12

The layer that anchors the skin to underlying organs and is composed of loose areolar and adipose tissue

Subcutaneous layer

13

Pigment that gives you your skin color; most important one

Melanin

14

What is the structure of hair

Root (embedded in skin) and shaft (protecting skins surface); made up of hard-keratin; hair follicle contains the hair root

15

What is the structure of nails

Made of hard keratin; protective coverings on the ends of fingers and toes; consists of a nail plates that overlies a service of skin called the nail bed; growth from nail matrix

16

Expanded deep end of hair

Hair bulb

17

Nipple like region of dermis containing capillaries

Papillae

18

Part of hair below the skin surface

Root

19

Part of hair above skin surface

Shaft

20

The epidermal layer surrounding the hair that extends down into the dermis or even the hypodermis

Hair follicle

21

Bundles of smooth muscle cells that calls hair to stand (chill bumps)

Arrector Pili

22

This chemical is a polymer of the amino acid tyrosine; made by melanocytes and transferred into keratinocytes; most important in skin color

Melanin

23

Name three pigments responsible for skin color

Melanin, hemoglobin, carotenes

24

Name two general kinds of sweat glands

Eccrine and apocrine

25

Most common type of sweat gland; duct reaches the surface; thermoregulation function; most abundant on palms, souls, and forehead

Eccrine gland

26

How does the body regulate temperature?

Regulation of body temperature is important because the slightest change can disrupt metabolic reactions. When body temperature rises, nerve impulses tell the skin and other organs to release heat. Sweating allows the body to cool by releasing heat from the skin's surface. When the body temperature drops, the brain triggers different responses such as blood vessels contracting and shivering. These actions generate body heat.

27

How does the body heal wounds?

If the wound is shallow, epithelial cells divide more rapidly, and newly formed cells fill the gap. If the wound extends into the dermis or subcutaneous layer, blood vessels break and escaping blood forms clots in the wound. The clot forms a scab. Fibroblasts migrate to the scab to bind the wound together. Then phagocytic cells remove dead cells, replace damaged tissues, and the scab falls off. If the wound is extensive it may form a scar.

28

What are the types of burns

1st°, 2nd°, third-degree

29

A burn down to the subcutaneous layer

Third-degree burn

30

A burn down to the dermis layer

Second-degree burn

31

A burned down to the epidermis layer

1st° burn

32

If you have a scar, they burn was close to a ___ degree burn

Second-degree burn

33

Absorbs ultraviolet radiation, prevents mutations in the DNA of skin cells another damaging effects, a dark pigment that provides skin color

Melanin

34

A tough, fibrous, waterproof protein

Keratin

35

Contains groups a specialized epithelial cells and are usually associated with hair follicles; also called holocrine glands; secrete and oily mixture of fatty material and cellular debris called sebum into hair follicles

Sebaceous glands

36

Duct does not come to the surface; gland ruptures to release contents; sebaceous glands are of this kind; responsible for pimples; all over the body except palms and soles; lubricates hair and skin, also bactericidal

Holocrine glands a.k.a. sebaceous glands

37

Outermost covering

Epidermis

38

Black, brown, or yellow tint

Melanin

39

Adipose layer

Subcutaneous layer

40

Non living protein

Keratin

41

True layer of skin

Dermis

42

Tube that holds the hair root

Hair follicle

43

Outer cuticle layer of the hair shaft

Cortex

44

Lubricates skin make it soft and pliable

Sebum

45

Contains capillaries that nourish the hair follicle

Papilla

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