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Flashcards in history: chpt. 2 test Deck (30):
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Enter the Asia Minor with 37,000 men; Son of Philip the second; only 20 when he became king of Macedonia; moved quickly to fulfill is fathers dreams; by 331 b.c. He took possession of Persia; in June 323 b.c. Exhausted from wounds, fever, and too much alcohol, he dies at age 32.

Alexander

1

Became home to poets, writers, philosophers, and scientists—scholars of all kinds

Alexandria

2

"The revered one"; he proved to be highly popular, but his continuing control of the army was the chief source of his power; he was named imperator, or commander in chief; he was the first emperor of the Roman Empire

Augustus

3

"New Rome"; eventually renamed __________; the city would become the center of the eastern Roman Empire and one of the great cities of the world.

Constantinople

4

Divided Rome into four units; ruled from 284-305; each with its own ruler his military power still enabled him to claim a higher status and to hold the ultimate authority; his political and military reforms greatly enlarged army and civil service; issued edicts that forced people to remain in their designated vocations.

Diocletian

5

Carthage's greatest general

Hannibal

6

The most famous building regarding as the greatest example of classical Greek temple; built between 447 and 432 BC dedicated to Athena, the patron goddess of Athens; Athenian pride; shows principles of classical architecture: the search for calmness, clarity, and freedom from unnecessary detail

Parthenon

7

Dominant figure in Athenian politics between 461 and 429 BC; attached to the direct democracy;

Pericles

8

What Athenian ruler created a council of 500?

Cleisthenes

9

Sparta and it's allies feared the growing Athenian Empire and a series of disputes led to the outbreak of _______; this disastrous Civil War lasted from 431 to 405 BC when the Athenian fleet was destroyed at Aegospotami; within the next year Athens surrendered; This weakened the major Greek States and ruined any possibility of the cooperation among them.

Peloponnesian war

10

What reflects an appreciation for ideal forms, balance, and harmony?

Greek art

11

Know the three groups in Plato's just state

First (Top) – upper-class of philosopher-kings
Second – warriors who protected society
third – all the rest, the masses, people driven not by wisdom or courage but by desire (producers of society — artisans, tradespeople, and farmers

12

In what period did Greek language and culture spread to Southwest Asia?

Hellenistic era

13

Know Rome in 509 b.c.

Between 509 and 264 BC most of what is modern-day Italy was unified under Rome's control.

14

Know: Virgil's epic poem

The Aeneid; his greatest work in honor of Rome

15

No people had more slaves or relied on labor as much as the Romans did; The Roman conquest of the Mediterranean brought a drastic change in the use of slaves. Large numbers of foreign people had been captured in different wars and were brought back to Italy as slaves. Greek slaves were in demand as tutors, musicians, doctors, and artists. Roman businessman would employ them as shop assistance or craftspeople. Many slaves of all races were used as household workers such as, cooks, valets, waiters, cleaners, and gardeners. Slaves built roads in public buildings, and farmed the large estates of the wealthy. The conditions the slaves lived in were often pitiful.

Slavery in the Roman empire

16

Romans excelled in architecture. They continued to use Greek style such as colonnades and rectangular buildings, the Romans also used forms based on curved lines: the arch, vault, and dome. The Romans were the first people to use concrete on a massive scale. Using concrete along with the new architectural forms made it possible for the Romans to construct huge buildings undreamed of by the Greeks.

The most important form was the temple dedicated to the gods and goddesses; had walled rooms that had statues of deities and treasuries in which gifts for the gods or goddesses were safeguarded. The central rooms were surrounded by a screen of columns that made Greek temples open structures. The most famous is the Parthenon

Roman and Greek architecture

17

Great landowners, who became Rome's ruling class

Patricians

18

A large group of less wealthy landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers; Man could vote but couldn't be elected for office

Plebeians

19

A great Greek poet who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey; they were the first great epic poems of early Greece; he did not so much record history; he created it

Homer

20

A period of peace and prosperity; "Roman Peace"; created by the five good emperors; lasted for almost 100 years

Pax Romana

21

One of the five good emperors; created a program that provided state funds to assist poor parents in the raising and education of their children; he and Hadrian were especially active and building public works—aqueducts, bridges, roads, and harbor facilities—throughout the provinces and in Rome.

Trajan

22

Most distinguished poet of the Augustine age; Son of a small landowner in northern Italy; wrote the Aeneid.

Virgil

23

Between 800 and 600 BC were rigidly organized, means self-discipline, males spent their lives in the military enrolled at 20, could vote at 30, military until 60. Women lived at home and hadgreater freedom. One of the most famous and powerful Greek city states; had an oligarchy; focused on military

Sparta

24

One of Plato's students; went to the Academy for 20 years; his interests and analyzing and classifying things based on observation and investigation; wrote about many subjects, ethics, logic, politics, poetry, astronomy, geology, biology and physics; found three good forms of government: monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional government; wanted an effective form of government that rationally direct human affairs

Aristotle

25

A reformer who gained upper hand, created a new Council of 500 that supervised foreign affairs, oversaw the treasury, and proposed laws that would be voted on by the assembly

Cleisthenes

26

One of Socrates students considered by many to be the greatest philosopher of Western civilization, ideas about government were explained in a work entitled the republic

Plato

27

Was a sculptor but his true love was philosophy; taught many pupils; believe that the goal of education was only to improve that individual; developed the Socratic method which uses the question and answer format to lead pupils to see things for themselves by using their own reason

Socrates

28

How was the Roman Republic weakened?

By the second century BC, the Senate had become the real government body of Roman state. Within the senate rival factions of wealthy families began to compete for power, creating disorder.

29

Adopted Christianity as the official Roman religion

Theodosius the Great

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