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(1045-256 B.C.) During this time China began to adopt many of the features that characterized Chinese civilization for centuries. Especially the Mandate of Heaven.

Zhou Dynasty


(2340-2100 B.C.) Their leader, Sargon, overran the Sumerian city-states and set up the first empire in world history



Ruled babylon; gained control of Sumer and Akkad; created a the new Mesopotamian kingdom. He built temples, encouraged trade, and brought economic revival to his land



Ruled Mauryan Empire; greatest ruler in the history of India; used Buddhists ideals to guide his rule. He set up hospitals; sent missionaries to China to introduce Buddhism there. He also had the idea to build the Silk Road



Founded the Qin dynasty; "first Qin emperor"; unified the Chinese world. His project was the Great Wall of China.

Qin Shihuangdi


Collection of hymns, religious ceremonies that were passed down orally through centuries by Aryan priests and then eventually written down



Created a powerful Persian state that stretched from from Asia Minor to western India; ruled from (559-530 b.c.); captured Babylon; demonstrated wisdom and compassion. He had a reputation for mercy; had genuine respect for other civilizations

Cyrus the Great


Lasted over 400 years (202 B.C.- 220 A.D.); population in China increased rapidly under this rule. This created a growing need for bigger and fjord efficient bureaucracy to keep the state in proper working order. Technological achievements were surpassed.

Han Dynasty


Located on the upper Tigris River; were Semitic-speaking people who exploited the use of iron weapons to establish an empire by 700 B.C. It included Mesopotamia, parts of the Iranian plateau, sections of Asia minor, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt down to themes. Within less than 100 years internal strife and resentment of the Kings began to tear the Empire apart. They used terror as an instrument of warfare. They were especially known for committing atrocities on their captives.



Created city-states; origin remains a mystery; By 3000 BC they had established a number of independent city states in southern Mesopotamia including Eridu, Ur, Uruk. Their most prominent building was the temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of the city. They believed that gods and goddesses owned the cities. The people devoted much of their wealth to building temples as well as elaborate houses for the priests and priestesses who served the gods. Priests and priestesses who supervise the temples and their property had a great deal of power. Eventually however ruling power passed into the hands of kings. Kings led armies and organized workers for the irrigation projects on which Mesopotamian farming depended. Conflicts arose when city states grew and expanded. City states were also open to envision my other groups



Learned how to create more sophisticated tools; how to use fire; and how to adapt to or even change their physical environment. They were primarily nomads who hunted animals and gathered wild plants for survival. They also created a human culture that included sophisticated cave paintings. They were nomads because once they hunted and gathered all the animals in that area they had to move to another area to hunt and kill more animals for survival.

Paleolithic people


People either hunted or killed animals for food or kept animals and grew food on a regular basis. The domestication of animals added a steady source of meat milk and wool. Growing crops and taming food producing animals created what historians call an agricultural revolution.

Ability to acquire food


New Stone Age; the period of human history from 8000 to 4000 B.C.; the real change in this time was the shift from the hunting of animals and the gathering of food to the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis which we call systematic agriculture. The growing of crops in the taming of food producing animals created what historians call and agricultural revolution; some believe this revolution was the single most important development in human history. The growing of crops on a regular basis gave rise to more permanent settlements which historians call farming villages. Once people began to settle in villages or towns they saw the need to build houses for protection and other structuresfor storage. Organized communities stored food and other material goods which encourage the development of trade. As they mastered the art of farming they gradually began to develop more complex societies.

Neolithic Revolution


(3000 BC) an increase in food production in the river valleys of Mesopotamia Egypt India and China lead to significant growth and human population and the rise of cities.

Civilizations began


The Nile River is the longest river in the world. The Nile Delta is called lower Egypt. The land stream to the south is called upper Egypt. Egypt's most important cities developed at the tip of the Delta, the point at which the Nile divides. _____ was divided into three major periods: the old Kingdom, the middle Kingdom, and the new Kingdom. _____ begins around 3100 BC, when Menes the king united the villages of upper and lower Egypt into a single kingdom and created the first royal _____ dynasty. A dynasty is a family of rulers this right to rule is passed on within the family.

History of Egypt began


Flourished as a world religion and later influenced the religion of Christianity and Islam



How is Judaism different from all other religions

Believes in one God, believes he created the world, expects goodness from his people, if they did not obey his will they would be punished, however God was full of mercy and love, The covenant, law, and prophets were three aspects of Jewish religious tradition


Around 1500 BC, a group of nomadic people move south across the Hindu Kush Mountain range into the plains of northern India. They created the caste system and Hinduism.



A sixth century BC, a new doctor in, in northern India that was a rival of Hinduism. The creator of _____ is Siddhartha Gautama.



Route that gets its name from transporting China's most valuable product. It reached over 4000 miles. People use camels to transport goods to the mountains and deserts of _____.

Silk Road


(2052 1652 BC) known as the Golden age—age of stability. One feature was a new concern of the pharaohs for the people. The digging of a canal to connect the an ile to the Red Sea aided trade and transportation. Came to an end after the invasion of the Hyksos.

Middle Kingdom


Use pyramids to bury their pharaohs and family; created hieroglyphics; pure amid's temples and other monuments bear witness to the agricultural and artistic achievements; they also made advances in mathematics and science and medical expertise.



Wedge shaped system of writing



(970 to 930 BC) made Jerusalem into the capital of Israel; expanded government and army and encouraged trade; best known for building a temple in the city of Jerusalem

King Solomon


(27,002 22,000 BC) age of prosperity and splendor; monarchs were powerful rulers over a unified state; pharaoh became the most common title of the Egyptian monarchs

Old Kingdom


First woman to become pharaoh—built a great temple at Deir el Bahri, near Thebes.



Indo-European people who lived in what is today southwestern Iran. Primarily nomadic, they were organized in groups and so one family manage to unify them. One of the families members was Cyrus the great. He created the powerful Persian state that stretched from Asia minor to Western India. Cyrus the great demonstrated wisdom and compassion.



Real change in Neolithic Revolution

Systematic agriculture


Who extended the Persian Empire into Europe



Lowest level of Indian society; not a part of the varna system. Made up 5% of the total population of ancient India; given menial degrading tasks that other Indians would not except, such as collecting trash and handling dead bodies. They were not considered human, they're very presence was considered harmful to members of the other classes.


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