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The southern coast of West Africa; it was the new source of gold for the Portuguese

Gold Coast


An agreement between Spain and and Portugal agreeing on a line of demarcation (an imaginary line that divided their spheres of influence) which stated that unexplored territories east of the line would be controlled by Portugal and those west of the line by Spain. In 1494 it almost gave Spain control of almost all of the Americas.

Treaty of Tordesillas


A Venetian seaman who explored the New England coastline of the Americas for England

John Cabot


The right to use Native Americans as laborers (slaves)



The journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas, so called because it was the middle portion of the triangular trade route

Middle Passage


King of Congo; sent a letter to the king of Portugal in 1526 that said, “so great is the corruption that our country is being completely depopulated. ”

King Afonso


Slave trade had a devastating effect on _____. _____ was pulled into slave trade. Population declined and warfare increased, people lost faith in their gods, their art deteriorated, and human sacrifice became more common. When the British arrived there at the end of the 19th-century they found a corrupt and brutal place.



Dutch traders drove the English traders out of the spice market, reducing English influence to a single port on the southern coast of ________.



The Dutch turn their attention to the island of ____, where they established a fort at Batavia in 1619. The purpose of the fort was to protect Dutch possessions in the East. It became a strategic center got the Dutch.



In 1511, the Portuguese seized Melaka and soon occupied the Moluccas. Known to the Europeans as the Spice Islands, the Moluccas where the chief source the spices that had originally attracted the Portuguese to the Indian Ocean.The Portuguese set up small settlements along the coast, which they used is trading posts or as way stations en route to the Spice Islands. In the early 1600s power shifted to the Dutch and they pushed the Portuguese out of the spice trade.



_____________ went around the cape and cut across the Indian Ocean to the coast of India. In May of 1498, he arrived off the port of Calicut, where he took on a cargo of spices. He returned to Portugal and made a profit of several thousand percent

Vasco de Gama


An Italian, ___________________, believed he could reach Asia by sailing west instead of east around Africa. In October 1492, he reached the Americas, where he explored the coastline of Cuba and the island of Hispaniola. However, ___________________ believed he had reached Asia.

Christopher Columbus


A set of principles that dominated economic thought in the 1600s (17th century).



Africans continue to live in small political units in which authority rested in the village leader. For example, ___ society of eastern Nigeria was based on independent villages. The ___ were active traders, in the area produced more slaves than practically any other current continent



The discovery of the Americas resulted in the rise of _________________. Local African slave merchants shipped slaves to Brazil and the Caribbean.

African Slave Trade


Moluccas were known as...

Spice Islands


_________________________________ was stronger in the Malay Peninsula and Indonesian Archipelago because these states did not have strong, central monarchies

European influence on Southeast Asia


_________ was advancing on the mainland, where it became a dominant new religion from Burma to Vietnam.



He sailed to the coast of India and arrived off the port of Calicut.

Vasco da Gama


________________, a Florentine, went along on several voyages and wrote letters describing the lands he saw. These letters led to the use of the name America (after _______) for the new lands. Europeans called these territory the New World.

Amerigo Vespucci


A pattern of trade that connected Europe, Africa and Asia, the American continents; typically, manufactured goods from Europe were sent to Africa, where they were exchanged for slaves, who were sent to the Americas, where they were exchanged for raw materials that were then sent to Europe

Triangular Trade


During the 16th century, __________, large agricultural estates, were set up along the coast of Brazil and on islands in the Caribbean to grow _________. African slaves were shipped to Brazil and the Caribbean to work on ________________.

Sugarcane Plantations


The _____ tried to dominate the _____ trade by limiting cultivation of one crop to one island forcing others to stop growing and trading the spice.

The Dutch and Clove


The shift in power began in the early 1600s when the Dutch seized a Portuguese fort in Moluccas Moluccas and then gradually push the Portuguese out of the spice trade. During the next 50 years the Dutch occupied most of the Portuguese coastal forts. The Dutch drove the English traders out of the spice market and reduce their influence on Sumatra. They began to consolidate their political and military control over the entire area. The Dutch turned their attention to the island of Java where they established a fort at Batavia in 1619. Gradually the Dutch brought the entire island under their control.

Portuguese and their battles with the Dutch


A Dutch colony that stretched from the mouth of the Hudson River as far as Albany, NY. After 1660, rivalry with the English and French brought the fall of the Dutch commercial empire in the Americas. The English seized the colony of ______________ and renamed it New York.

New Netherland


What did the Dutch form?

Around 1595, the Dutch formed the East and West India Company.


They remained in one area of the world. However near the end of the 15th century they set out on remarkable overseas journeys. They were attracted to Asia. They began to try to gain access to Asia by sea. Economic motives, religious zeal, and spiritual and secular affairs (“God, glory, and gold”) were their three motives for expansion.

Early European settlers


Describe the pattern of triangular trade that developed in the 1500s.

When trade in slaves grew it became part of the triangular trade. The pattern of triangular trade is what connected Europe, Africa and Asia, the American continents. European merchant ships carried manufactured goods to Africa, where they were exchanged for slaves. Then the slaves were sent to the Americas. In the Americas the slaves they were exchanged for raw materials that were then sent to Europe. In Europe they were sold in European markets.


Describe the impact of slave trade on Benin.

The slave trade had a devastating effect on some of the African states. Benin was greatly effected by slave trade. Their population declined and warfare increased. As a result people started losing faith in their gods. Their art deteriorated and human sacrifice became more common. When the British arrived there, they found a corrupt and brutal place.

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