Flashcards in Sympathomimetics Deck (17):
Activates alpha and beta receptors.
Drug of choice for anaphylaxis.
Can be used for cardiac arrest, asthma, COPD, and for hemostasis.
Activates alpha and beta receptors (alpha > beta).
Used as last resort for cardiogenic shock.
Can be used for neurogenic shock
Compensatory vagal reflexes tend to overcome the direct positive chronotropic effect.
Activates alpha, beta, and D1 receptors.
Used in cardiogenic shock and heart failure.
Has a dose-dependent action
-- Low dose (_____ mcg/kg/min) - vasodilation in the splanchnic and renal vascular beds via ______ receptors
-- Medium (______ mcg/kg/min) - increased renal blood flow, heart rate, cardiac contractility, and cardiac output via ______ receptors
-- High doses (greater than _______ mcg/kg/min) - vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure via _______ receptors
MNEMONIC: DiBA Dopa?
Nonselectively activates beta adrenergic receptors.
Once used in asthma but is withdrawn from the market due to cardiovascular disturbance and arrhythmias.
Isoproterenol is not a beta-blocker. It is a non-selective beta agonist.
I SOrry! Akala ko beta-blocker ka!
Activates alpha-1 receptors used as a nasal decongestant and mydriatic. May cause rebound nasal congestion (rhinitis medica mentosa). Ocular administration causes mydriasis without cycloplegia.
SimD: pseudoephedrine, oxymetazoline, xylomethazoline, tetrahydrazoline, naphazoline, midodrine
MNEMONIC for alpha-1 agonists:
Activates alpha-2 receptors.
Used for hypertension, cancer pain, and opioid withdrawal.
Side effects include rebound hypertension, sedation, and dry mouth.
To avoid rebound hypertension, taper use prior to discontinuation.
To treat rebound hypertension, administer _______________.
Activates alpha-2 receptors.
Used for gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia.
Side effects include sedation and hemolytic anemia (Coombs test positive)
SimD: guanfacine, guanabenz, dexmedetomidine, tizanidine
Activates beta-1 receptors.
Used for cardiogenic shock and acute heart failure.
May also be used in cardiac arrest testing.
Activates beta-2 receptors in bronchial smooth muscles, thereby causing bronchodilation.
Drug of choice for acute asthma attacks.
Salbutamol a.k.a. albuterol
Terbutaline and ritoridine (used in tocolysis for preterm labor)
Sympathomimetic of choice for acute heart failure and septic shock
Beta-1 and D1 agonists (to increase cardiac output)
Sympathomimetic of choice for spinal shock. Used to induce hemostasis and decongestion
Alpha-1 agonist (vasoconstriction and temporary maintenance of BP)
Sympathomimetic of choice for bronchospasm and premature labor
Beta-2 agonist (bronchodilation, uterine smooth muscle relaxation)
Sympathomimetic of choice for glaucoma and hypertension
Alpha-2 agonist (to decrease BP)
Non selective beta-blocker used for hyperthyroidism, angina prophylaxis, hypertension, arrhythmias, migraine, performance anxiety.
Side effects include bronchospasm, AV block. Heart failure, CNS sedation, and erectile dysfunction.
Masks the premonitory symptoms of hypoglycemia in diabetics (tachycardia, tremor, anxiety).
Carvedilol and labetalol (has combined alpha and beta blockade, hence may be used in pheochromocytoma) Think: CLAB
Pindolol, timolol, nadolol, levobunolol, metipranolol
Beta-blockers with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (2)
They have a partial agonist activity which is an advantage in treating patients with asthma because these drugs are less likely to cause bronchospasm.
Beta-blockers with no local anesthetic activity making them useful in the treatment of glaucoma (2)