10.1 Antivirals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 10.1 Antivirals Deck (14):
1

Which classes of antivirals are used for hepatic infections? (3)

1) Interferons
2) Nucleotide/Nucleoside analogs
3) Protease Inhibitors

2

What is the DOC for HSV encephalitis?

Acyclovir

3

What are the 3 steps required for activation of acyclovir?

•Monophosphorylated by herpes virus-encoded enzyme (thymidine kinase)

• Host cell enzymes complete phosphorylation to di- and triphosphate forms

• Competes with dGTP; once incorporated into DNA causes chain termination & inhibition of viral DNA polymerase

4

How does Acyclovir resistance occur?

• Altered or deficient thymidine kinases

• Altered viral DNA polymerase with decreased affinity for
acyclovir

5

What is significant about valacyclovir?

Greater oral bio availability

6

Ganciclovir is the DOC for what?

CMV retinitis & CMV prophylaxis in
immunocompromised

7

What is the MOA of Ganciclovir?

• Phosphorylated by viral (UL97) and cell kinases

• DNA chain terminator & DNA polymerase inhibitor

8

What are the adverse effects of Gangiclovir?

• Myelosuppression

• Severe dose-dependent neutropenia

9

Cidofovir is used for what?

-Major use is treatment of CMV-induced retinitis in
HIV/AIDS
-Effective against HSV & ganciclovir resistant HSV

10

Which purine &pyrimidine analog must be phosphorylated by viral kinases?

Gangiclovir

11

Which purine and pyrimidine analog must be activated by host cell kinase instead of viral kinase?

Cidofovir

12

What is Trifluridine the DOC for?

• Drug of choice for HSV keratoconjunctivitis and
recurrent epithelial keratitis

13

Which drug is used for the topical treatment of HSV (cold sores)

Penciclovir

14

What is Foscarnet used for?

• Used for CMV retinitis in immunocompromised
patients, acyclovir-resistant HSV & CMV retinitis &
ganciclovir-resistant CMV & VZV