4.2 Opioids Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > 4.2 Opioids > Flashcards

Flashcards in 4.2 Opioids Deck (20):
1

Which opioid derivatives are most commonly used as antitussives? (2)

-Dextrometorphan
-Codeine

2

Which opioid analgesics are most commonly used to control diarrhea? (2)

- Loperamide
- Diphenoxylate

3

Which opioid analgesic has the most pronounced anti-shivering properties?

- Meperidine

4

How does meperidine work?

Blocks shivering by acting on alpha2-adrenoreceptors

5

What are the most common adverse effects with use of opioid analgesics? (5)

1) Nausea
2) Vomiting
3) Sedation
4) Itching
5) Constipation

6

Describe the effects of using a pure agonist alongside a weak partial agonist?

- Risk of diminishing analgesia or even inducing a state of withdrawal.

7

Why are opioids contraindicated in patients with head injuries?

CO2 retention caused by respiratory depression results in cerebral vasodilation -> brain fxn alteration in pt with inc ICP.

8

Why are opioids contraindicated in pregnancy?

Fetus may become dependent

9

Opioids can have drug interactions with which category of drugs?

1) Sedative-hypnotics
2) Anti-psychotics
3) MAO inhibitors

10

Which opioids do we see drug interactions with when taken alongside MAOIs?

- Meperidine
- Tramadol

11

Which opioid drugs are considered strong agonists? (6)

1) Morphine
2) Hydromorphone and Oxymorphone
3) Heroin
4) Meperidine
5) Fentanyl
6) Methadone

12

Which opioids are more liposoluble than morphine and enter the brain more readily?

- Heroin
- 6-MAM (product of heroin hydrolysis, which is then converted to morphine.)

13

Meperidine acts upon which receptor?

Mu receptor agonist

14

Normeperidine, the metabolic of Meperidine, has a half life of how long?

15-20 hours (compared to 3 hours for meperidine)

15

Describe the reaction in serotonin syndrome

-Delerium,
-Hyperthermia
-Headache
-Hyper or hypotension
-Rigidity
-Convulsions
-Coma
-Death

16

How does meperidine cause serotonin syndrome?

Meperidine blocks serotonin reuptake

17

Which receptor does Fentanyl act upon?

Mu agonist

18

Does the PK of Fentanyl

Rapid onset and short duration of action (15-30 mins)

19

How does Fentanyl compare to Morphine?

100 times more potent than morhpine.

Sufentanil (subgroup) is 1000 times more potent

20

Describe the potency of methadone in comparison to morphine.

Equal