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Flashcards in 8.01 Deck (17):
1

Anti-Staphylococcal Penicillin's are recommended as first-line treatment for what?

Staphylococcal endocarditis in patients without artificial heart valvues

2

Which drugs are considered extended spectrum penicillins?

1) Ampicillin

2)Amoxicillin

3

What is unique about Amoxicillin?

Higher bioavailability than other penicillins

4

Amoxicillin is a common antibiotic prescribed for?(2)

- Children and in pregnancy

-standard regimen for endocarditis
prophylaxis during dental or respiratory tract
procedures

5

What are the clinical applications for Ampicillin and Amoxicillin?

Extended-spectrum penicillin (HELPSS kill enterococci)

- H.Influenza
-E.Coli
-L. Monocytogenes
-P.mirabilis
-Salmonella
-Shigella
-Enterococci

6

Ampicillin is used in combination with what to treat enterococci and Listerial infections?

Aminoglycoside

7

Which drugs are anti-pseudomonal penicillins?

1) Ticarcillin
2) Piperacillin
3) Carbenicillin

8

Penicillin's are combined with what for the effective empiric treatment for infective endocarditis?

Aminoglycoside

9

What is unique regarding the oral absorption of Penicillins?

Absorption impaired by food (except amoxicillin -> high oral bioavailability)

10

How are most penicillin's excreted? What is the exception?

-Most excreted primarily via kidney (beware kidney failure)

-Nafcillin = exception. Excreted primarily in bile.

11

What is the major antigenic determinant in Penicillin hypersensitivity?

Penicilloic acid

12

What adverse effect is caused by methicillin?

Interstitial nephritis

13

What adverse effect is caused by ampicillin?

Pseudomembranous Colitis

14

What is the adverse effect when amoxicillin or ampicillin is given for a viral infection?

Maculopapular Rash

15

What is the adverse effect of Nafcillin?

Neutropenia

16

What is the adverse effect of Ticarcillin?

Hematologic toxicities

17

What is the adverse effect caused by oxacillin?

Hepatitis