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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Diseases 2 Deck (68)
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1

Sterling's hypothesis

Volume of blood in the chamber is proportional to the contractile ability of the heart in that chamber

2

What are the 3 causes of increased cardiac workload?

Hypertension, vascular disease or MI

3

What is the result of increased cardiac work?

Increased stress- hypertrophy and/or dilation= cardiac dysfunction

4

What are the 2 main results of left sided heart failure that have effects throughout the body?

Low output
congestion

5

What are the effects of low output resulting from left ventricular heart failure

pre-renal azotremia (high N2content in blood)
Salt and fluid retention (renin-angiotensin activation/natriuretic peptides)
Brain-irritability, decreased attention, stupor>coma

6

What are the effects of congestion, resulting from left ventricular heart failure?

Lungs: pulmonary congestion and oedema. Dyspnoea, orthopnoea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea, blood tinged sputum, cyanosis, increased pulmonary wedge pressure

7

Causes of right sided heart failure

Left heart failure
Cor pulmonale

8

What is cor pulmonale

Abnormal enlargement of the right side of the heart as a result of lung disease or pulmonary blood vessels

9

Organs/areas affected by right sided heart failure

Liver and spleen
Kidneys
Pleura/pericardium
Peripheral tissues

10

What are the effects of right sided heart failure on the liver and spleen

Passive congestion (nutmeg liver)
Congestive splenomegaly
Ascites

11

Autopsy findings of cardiac heart failure

Cardiomegaly, chamber dilation, hypertrophy of myocardial fibres, BOXCAR nuclei, pulmonary/peripheral oedema

12

What are BOXCAR nuclei?

Rectangular nuclei in hypertrophied myocytes

13

Valvular opening problems

Stenosis

14

Valvular closing problems

Regurgitation

15

70% valvular heard disease is made up of what 2?

Aortic and mitral stenosis

16

Causes of aortic stenosis

Senile-old age
Rheumatic heart disease

17

Causes of mitral stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

18

Rheumatic heart disease follows what infection?

Group A strep

19

Effects of rheumatic heart disease

Pancarditis:
1)endocarditis
2)myocarditis
3)pericarditis

20

5 acute effects of rheumatic heart disease

Inflammation
Asschoff bodies (nodules)
Anitschlcow cells (enlarged macrophages with asschoff bodies)
Pancarditis
Vegetations on chordae tendinae

21

3 chronic effects of rheumatic heart disease

Thickened valves
Commisural fusion
Thick, short chordae tendinae

22

Left ventricular hypertrophy but no hypertension

Aortic stenosis

23

Calcification of the mitral skeleton, usually a result of regurgitation, but sometimes stenosis

Mitral annular calcification

24

What mitral valve dysfunction is more common in females than males?

Mitral annular calcification
mitral valve prolapse

25

Causes of aortic regurgitation

Syphilis
Rheumatoid arthritis
Marfan's syndrome

26

Causes of mitral regurgitation

Mitral valve prolapse
Infectious
Fen Phen (anti obesity drug)
Weakness in papillary muscles/chordae tendinae
Mitral annular calcification

27

Myxomatous (pathological weakening of tissue) degeneration of mitral valve. Associated with connective tissue disorders.

Mitral valve prolapse

28

Usually asymptomatic, mid-systolic 'click', holocystolic murmur if regurg present, occasional chest pain, dyspnoea

Mitral valve prolapse

29

Effects of mitral valve prolapse

97% no significant effects
3% infective endocarditis, mitral insufficiency, arrythmias, sudden death

30

Which congential heart defects may not be evident until adult life?

Coarctation of the aorta and ASD

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