Flashcards in Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Deck (51)
Inhibit bacterial growth by inhibiting protein synthesis
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
Minimum concentration of antibiotic at which visible growth is inhibited
Give a syndergistic example of 2 types of antibiotics used to treat streptococcal endocarditis
Aminoglycoside and beta lactam
Which types of antibiotics target the bacterial cell wall?
Beta lactams and glycopeptides
What is the name of the major constituent of bacterial cell walls and name the 2 glucose derivatives that it is made up of
N-acetyl muramic acid (NAM)
N-acetyl glycosamine (NAG)
Describe the beta lactam ring
C-C-C-N in a ring structure. Structural analogue of D-alanyl D-alanine
How do beta lactams work?
Interfere with the function of the 'penicillin binding proteins' (transpeptidase enzymes) involved in the peptidoglycan cross linking
Name 4 types of beta lactams
Penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems,monobactams
Amoxicillin is an example of what type of antibiotic?
Penicillin- beta lactam
cefuroxime is an example of what type of antibiotic?
meropenem is an example of what type of antibiotic?
azteronam is an example of what type of antibiotic?
Give an example of a glycopeptide
How do glycopeptides work?
Bind directly to terminal D-alanyl-D-alanine on NAM to prevent binding of transpeptidases and thus peptidoglycan cross linking
Glycopeptides work on what sort of bacteria?
Gram +ve- unable to penetrate outer membrane on gram -ves
Name the different antibiotics that act as protein synthesis inhibitors
Macrolides, Lincosamides, streptogramins (MLS)
(others e.g. mupirocin, fusidic acid)
Name an example of an aminoglycoside
How do aminoglycosides work?
Bind to 30s ribosomal subunit
Name an example of a macrolide
How do MLS antibiotics work?
Bind to 50S ribosomal subunit
Name an example of a tetracycline
How do tetracyclines work?
Bind to 30S ribosomal subunit, and interfere with binding of tRNA to rRNA
Name an example of an oxazolidinone
How do oxazolidinones work?
Bind to 50S ribosomal subunit and inhibits assembly of initiation complex.
Name the types of DNA Synthesis inhibitors
Trimethoprim and Sulfonamides
Quinolones and Fluoroquinolones
How do trimethoprim and sulfonamides work?
Inhibit folate synthesis- folic acid is a purine synthesis precursor.
What is the target enzyme in DNA synthesis that trimethoprim targets?
What is the target enzyme in DNA synthesis that sulfonamides target?