Antibiotic Resistance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Antibiotic Resistance Deck (30):
1

Staph A typcially resistant to which antibiotics

Meticillin

2

Enterococci typically resistant to which antibiotics

Vancomycin/glycopeptide

3

Enterobacteriacae typically resistant to which antibiotics?

Beta lactams (produce beta lactamase)

4

In sensitivity testing, the area around the antibiotics where bacteria cannot grow

Zone of Inhibition

5

Alternative to solid media sensitivity testing that gives a more accurate measurement of MIC

Liquid media- microtitre plate susceptibility testing

6

Which antibiotic cannot travel through gram -ve bacilli?

Vancomycin

7

Uptake of aminoglycosides requires what?

An O2 dependent active transport mechanism

8

Describe the target alteration in MRSA

Altered penicillin binding proteins- bacteria does not bind beta lactams

9

Describe the target alteration in enterococci

Altered protein sequence in gram +ve peptidoglycan

10

Describe the target alteration in gram -ve bacilli

mutations in dihydrofolate reductase gene- resistant to trimethoprim

11

Horizontal transfer of resistance is enabled by what?

Transporons and integrons

12

Process by which bacteria exchange genetic material in horizontal transfer

Conjugation

13

Give 4 examples of acute viral infections

Influenza, measles, mumps, hep A

14

Give 2 examples of latent chronic viral infections

HSV, CMV

15

Give 3 examples of persistant chronic viral infections

HIV, Hep B, Hep C

16

Which viruses have RNA to DNA polymerases

retroviruses (HIV) and help B

17

What was originally developed as an anti-cancer drug and was found to inhibit HIV replication (NRTI)

Azidothmidine (AZT)

18

What are the 2 pyrimidine bases?

CT

19

Give an example of an NRTI which acts as a thymine analogue

Zidovudine

20

Give an example of an NRTI which acts as a cytosine analogue

Lamivudine

21

Give an example of 2 NRTIs that act as purine analogues

Abacovir and Tenofovir

22

Why do some NRTIs act against HBV?

Also contains reverse transcriptase enzyme

23

Which NRTIs are active against HBV?

Lamiduvine, tenofovir

24

How do NNRTIs act?

Bind to different parts of the protein

25

Name the 4 main types of antiretroviral drugs

NRTIs, NNRTIs, Protease Inhibitors and HAART

26

What does HAART aim to do and when does treatment start?

Aims to switch off virus replication. Started when CD4 falls and taken life long.

27

What combination of antiretrovirals are taken in HAART?

2 NRTIs+1NNRTI
2NRTIs+boosted PI

28

What mutation leads to resistance to lamivudine (pyrimidal NRTI)

M184V

29

What mutation at delta 32 allele lends resistance to HIV

CCR5

30

What is the current treatment for Hep.C

Interferons (naturally occurring antivirals) and ribaflavin