Flashcards in Antibiotic Resistance Deck (30)
Staph A typcially resistant to which antibiotics
Enterococci typically resistant to which antibiotics
Enterobacteriacae typically resistant to which antibiotics?
Beta lactams (produce beta lactamase)
In sensitivity testing, the area around the antibiotics where bacteria cannot grow
Zone of Inhibition
Alternative to solid media sensitivity testing that gives a more accurate measurement of MIC
Liquid media- microtitre plate susceptibility testing
Which antibiotic cannot travel through gram -ve bacilli?
Uptake of aminoglycosides requires what?
An O2 dependent active transport mechanism
Describe the target alteration in MRSA
Altered penicillin binding proteins- bacteria does not bind beta lactams
Describe the target alteration in enterococci
Altered protein sequence in gram +ve peptidoglycan
Describe the target alteration in gram -ve bacilli
mutations in dihydrofolate reductase gene- resistant to trimethoprim
Horizontal transfer of resistance is enabled by what?
Transporons and integrons
Process by which bacteria exchange genetic material in horizontal transfer
Give 4 examples of acute viral infections
Influenza, measles, mumps, hep A
Give 2 examples of latent chronic viral infections
Give 3 examples of persistant chronic viral infections
HIV, Hep B, Hep C
Which viruses have RNA to DNA polymerases
retroviruses (HIV) and help B
What was originally developed as an anti-cancer drug and was found to inhibit HIV replication (NRTI)
What are the 2 pyrimidine bases?
Give an example of an NRTI which acts as a thymine analogue
Give an example of an NRTI which acts as a cytosine analogue
Give an example of 2 NRTIs that act as purine analogues
Abacovir and Tenofovir
Why do some NRTIs act against HBV?
Also contains reverse transcriptase enzyme
Which NRTIs are active against HBV?
How do NNRTIs act?
Bind to different parts of the protein
Name the 4 main types of antiretroviral drugs
NRTIs, NNRTIs, Protease Inhibitors and HAART
What does HAART aim to do and when does treatment start?
Aims to switch off virus replication. Started when CD4 falls and taken life long.
What combination of antiretrovirals are taken in HAART?
What mutation leads to resistance to lamivudine (pyrimidal NRTI)
What mutation at delta 32 allele lends resistance to HIV