Urogenital Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Urogenital Pathology Deck (42):
1

Symptoms of nodular hyperplasia

Urgency
Difficulty starting micturation
Decreased stream size
Increased frequency
Incomplete bladder emptying
Nocturia

2

What is another name for nodular hyperplasia

Benign prostatic hypertrophy

3

What are the 4 zones in a normal prostate gland

Central
Peripheral
Transitional
Periurethral

4

Most carcinomas arise from which zone of the prostate gland?

Peripheral glands

5

Nodular hyperplasia typically occurs in which zone of the prostate gland

Central zone- causes urinary obstruction before carcinomas

6

Describe the growth of prostatic nodules in older men, compared with younger me

In older men they form and enlarge
In younger men (

7

Main cause of nodular hyperplasia

Impaired cell death- acumulation of senescent cells in the prostate

8

What role do androgens play in nodular hyperplasia?

They are able to increase cellular proliferation and inhibit cell death

9

What is the most common prostatic carcinoma?

Prostatic adenocarcinomas (95% prostatic malignancies)

10

In which age groups/ethnicities are prostatic adenocarcinomas most common?

>40yrs, increase incidence in african ancestry

11

Risk factors for prostatic carcinomas

Age
Race
Androgens/hormone levels
FH
BRCA2 mutation

12

How significant are BRCA2 mutations in increasing the risk of prostatic carcinoma?

x20 increased risk

13

What is the scoring system for prostatic carcinomas

Gleason's scoring system

14

What is the prognosis for prostatic carcinoma

Good

15

Risk factors for testicular germ cell tumours

Prior TGCT in contralateral testicle
Crytorchidism
Impaired spermatogenesis
Inguinal hernia
Hydrocele
Disorders of sex development
Prior testicular biopsy
Atopy
Testicular atrophy

16

What are the 2 types of testicular germ cell tumours?

Seminoma
Teratoma

17

Seminomas are common in which age group

35-45yrs

18

Teratomas are common in which age group?

0-20yrs

19

Which type of non germ cell testicular tumour presents as testicular enlargement, usually without pain, 10% metastases.

Seminoma

20

Which type of non germ cell testicular tumour presents as gradual testicualr swelling, usually benign pre-puberty but often malignant post puberty

Teratoma

21

Symptoms of seminoma

gynacomastia, exomphalmos, infertility

22

What hormones are secreted by seminomas?

PLAP and hCG

23

What is the cause of gynacomastia in seminomas

hCG

24

What hormones are secreted by teratomas?

Pure teratomatous tissues do not secrete tumour markers

25

Which type of germ cell testicular tumour is well demarcated, cream coloured, homogenous and coarsely lobulated

Seminoma (looks like semilina)

26

Which type of germ cell testicular tumour is well demarcated, solid, and multicystic

Teratoma

27

Which type of germ cell testicular tumour is made up of monotonous polygonal cells with mostly clear cytoplasm and central nuclei divided into lobules by thin bands of fibrovascular stroma

Seminoma

28

Which type of germ cell testicular tumour is an admixture of ectoderm and mesoderm

Teratoma

29

Infarcted seminiferous tubules, surrounded by purulent exudate containing neutrophils and other inflammatory cells

Acute and chronic epididymoorchitis

30

Swollen, painful and tender testes, may also have a mass indistinguishable to a neoplasm. No granulomas are present but interstitial and intratubular aggregation of epithelioid histiocytes, lymphocytes and plasma cells imparts a granulomatous appearance

Idiopathic granulomatous orchitis

31

Non-necrotizing granulomas involving testicular parenchyma

Sarcoidosis of the testis

32

Soft yellow, tan or brown nodules that replace normal testicular parenchyma. Tubules and interstitium are extensively infiltrated by large histiocytes with abundant eosinophilic granulomar cytoplasm.

Malakoplakia of testis

33

The name of the large histiocytes in malakoplakia of testis

Von hansermann histiocytes

34

An exuberant foreign body giant cell reaction to extravasated sperm, common after vasectomy

Sperm granuloma

35

Painless scrotal swelling, unilateral or bilateral mass, infertility, scrotal fistula. Caseating granulomatous inflammation is prominent, with fibrous thickening and enlargement of the epididymis and adjacent structures.

Tuberculous orchitis

36

Testis found in inguinal canal or upper scrotum, or abdomen

Cryptorchidism

37

Cryptorchidism is more common on which side?

Right

38

2 types of crytorchidism

Congenital and acquired

39

Complications of cryptorchidism

Testicular atrophy
Infertility
Carcinoma

40

2 types of hypogonadism

Primary and secondary

41

Types of primary hypogonadism

Undescended testis
klinefelter syndrome
Haemochromatosis
Mumps
Orchitis
Trauma
CF
Testicular torsion
Varicocele

42

Types of secondary hypogonadism

Pituitary failure
Drugs (glucocorticoids)
Obesity
Ageing