Childhood Viral Infections Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Childhood Viral Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Childhood Viral Infections Deck (68)
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1

Name 6 notifiable diseases

Acute meningitis
Acute poliomyelitis
Measles
Mumps
Rubella
Smallpox

2

What antibodies are in breast milk?

IgG
IgA

3

Virus that causes measules

Paramyxovirus- enveloped single stranded RNA virus

4

Describe the transmission for measles

Person-person. Droplet spread

5

Infectivity of measles and incubation period

4 days before rash to 4 days after disappearance (10-12 days incubation)

6

Natural hosts for measles

Only humans

7

Clinical features of measles

Rash, fever, conjunctivitis, coryza and cough
Koplick spots 1-2 days before rash.

8

Complications of measles

Otitis media
Pneumonia
Diarrhoea
Acute encephalitis
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)

9

Describe the features of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)

Rare, fatal, late (7-30 yrs after measles) infection in pregnancy- 20% foetal loss

10

Treatment for measles

Supportive
Antibiotics for superinfection

11

Prevention of measles

MMR-1yr

12

Describe the causative organism for chicken pox

Varicella Zoster Virus-herpes virus- DNA virus

13

How is VZV transmitted?

Respiratory spread/personal contact

14

Incubation period for VZV

14-15 days

15

Infectivity of VZV

2 days before onset of rash until vesicles dry up.

16

Describe the rash in VZV

Centripetal (starts on trunk and diffuses peripherally)
Macular?papular>vesicuar>papular

17

Complications of VZV

Pneumonitis (increased risk for smokers)
CNS involvement
Thrombocytopenic purpura
Shingle (zoster)

18

Treatment for VZV

Aciclovir
Chlorpheniramine can relieve itch (>1yr)

19

Prevention for VZV

Live vaccine- 2 doses (not routine)
VZ immunoglobulins given in high risk cases

20

Where is Rubella a problem?

Poland

21

Causative organism for rubella

Togavirus, RNA virus

22

Transmission for rubella

Droplet spread

23

Incubation period for rubella

14-21 days

24

Infectivity of rubella

1 wk before rash to 4 days after

25

Clinical features of rubella

50% infectious children are asymptomatic. Non specific prodrome. Lymphadenopathy. V. non specific rash-behind ears, face and neck

26

Complications of rubella

Thrombocytopenia. Post infectious encephalitis, arthritis

27

Complications of rubella in pregnancy

'congenital rubella syndrome'- more severe when contracted early in pregnancy.
Cateracts and other eye defects
Deafness
Cardiac abnormalities
Microcephaly
Retardation of intra-uterine growth
Inflammatory lesions of brain, liver, lungs and bone marrow

28

When in pregnancy is there a high risk of transmission of rubell?

less than 11 wks- 90% rish of transmission
Over 20 wks, no increased risk

29

Diagnosis of rubella

Serology IgG +ve for 3 months

30

Treatment for rubella

No treatment. Ig given to exposed pregnant women. Vaccine= MMR

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