Childhood Viral Infections Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Childhood Viral Infections Deck (68):
1

Name 6 notifiable diseases

Acute meningitis
Acute poliomyelitis
Measles
Mumps
Rubella
Smallpox

2

What antibodies are in breast milk?

IgG
IgA

3

Virus that causes measules

Paramyxovirus- enveloped single stranded RNA virus

4

Describe the transmission for measles

Person-person. Droplet spread

5

Infectivity of measles and incubation period

4 days before rash to 4 days after disappearance (10-12 days incubation)

6

Natural hosts for measles

Only humans

7

Clinical features of measles

Rash, fever, conjunctivitis, coryza and cough
Koplick spots 1-2 days before rash.

8

Complications of measles

Otitis media
Pneumonia
Diarrhoea
Acute encephalitis
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)

9

Describe the features of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)

Rare, fatal, late (7-30 yrs after measles) infection in pregnancy- 20% foetal loss

10

Treatment for measles

Supportive
Antibiotics for superinfection

11

Prevention of measles

MMR-1yr

12

Describe the causative organism for chicken pox

Varicella Zoster Virus-herpes virus- DNA virus

13

How is VZV transmitted?

Respiratory spread/personal contact

14

Incubation period for VZV

14-15 days

15

Infectivity of VZV

2 days before onset of rash until vesicles dry up.

16

Describe the rash in VZV

Centripetal (starts on trunk and diffuses peripherally)
Macular?papular>vesicuar>papular

17

Complications of VZV

Pneumonitis (increased risk for smokers)
CNS involvement
Thrombocytopenic purpura
Shingle (zoster)

18

Treatment for VZV

Aciclovir
Chlorpheniramine can relieve itch (>1yr)

19

Prevention for VZV

Live vaccine- 2 doses (not routine)
VZ immunoglobulins given in high risk cases

20

Where is Rubella a problem?

Poland

21

Causative organism for rubella

Togavirus, RNA virus

22

Transmission for rubella

Droplet spread

23

Incubation period for rubella

14-21 days

24

Infectivity of rubella

1 wk before rash to 4 days after

25

Clinical features of rubella

50% infectious children are asymptomatic. Non specific prodrome. Lymphadenopathy. V. non specific rash-behind ears, face and neck

26

Complications of rubella

Thrombocytopenia. Post infectious encephalitis, arthritis

27

Complications of rubella in pregnancy

'congenital rubella syndrome'- more severe when contracted early in pregnancy.
Cateracts and other eye defects
Deafness
Cardiac abnormalities
Microcephaly
Retardation of intra-uterine growth
Inflammatory lesions of brain, liver, lungs and bone marrow

28

When in pregnancy is there a high risk of transmission of rubell?

less than 11 wks- 90% rish of transmission
Over 20 wks, no increased risk

29

Diagnosis of rubella

Serology IgG +ve for 3 months

30

Treatment for rubella

No treatment. Ig given to exposed pregnant women. Vaccine= MMR

31

Slapped cheek

Parovirus B19

32

Virus for parovirus B19

B19-DNA virus

33

Transmission of parovirus B19

Respiatory secretions or from mother to child

34

Incubation/infectivity for parovirus

Incubation- 4-14 dyas
Not infecctious once rash has developed

35

Foetal disease-parovirus B19

Anaemia, hydrops- foetal transfusion

36

Clinical features of parovirus B19

Minor respiratory illness
Rash illness 'slapped cheek'
Arthralgia
Aplastic anaemia
Anaemia in immunosuppressed

37

Treatment for parovirus B19

None if self-limiting illness. Blood transfusion. No vaccine available. Infectious prior to rash so infection control difficult

38

Causative organsisms for enteroviral infection

Cocksackie, entero, echoviral infections

39

Transmission of enteroviral infection

Faecal-oral and by skin contact. Hand, foot and mouth disease.

40

Clinical presentation of enteroviral infection

Fever-rash symptoms, can develop into meningitis

41

Treatment/prevention for enteriviral infections

Supportive management and good hygeine to prevent transmission

42

Causative organisms of respiratory synctial virus

Pneumovirus

43

Clinical manifestation of RSV

Bronchiolitis in under 1yrs.

44

Incubation period for RSV

4-6 days

45

Complications of RSV

Can be life threatening. Reinfections common

46

Causative organism of metapneumovirus

Paramyxovirus

47

Clinical manifestation of metapneumovirus

similar to RSV- from mild URTI to pneumonia. Nearly universal by 5yrs.

48

Adenovirus accounts for what proportion of childhood respiratory infections?

10%

49

Clinical manifestation of adenovirus

Mild uRTI
Conjunctivitis
Diarrhoea

50

Treatment for adenovirus in immunocompromised

Cidofovir

51

Causative organisms for parainfluenza

Paramyxovirus

52

How many types of parainfluenza are there?

4- 1 in winter, 3 in summer

53

Transmission of parainfluenza

Person-person, inhalation

54

Clinical manifestation of parainfluenza

Croup/bronchiolitis/URTI

55

The common cold- 70% children with mild URTI

Rhinovirus

56

3 infectious childhood diseases that result in diarrhoea

Rotavirus
Noravirus

57

Causative organism for rotavirus

Reovirus (RNA virus)

58

Transmission for rotavirus

Faecal-oral, occasionally respiratory

59

Incubation period for rotavirus

1-2 days

60

Prevention for rotavirus

Oral live vaccine

61

Causative organism for mumps

Paramyxoviridae family

62

Transmission of mumps

Direct contact, droplet spread

63

Infectivity of mumps

Several days before parotid swelling to several days after

64

Incubation period for mumps

2-4 weeks

65

CLinical manifestation of mumps

Non specific prodrome-fever, malaise, anorexia, headache. Next 24 hours-earache, tenderness over ipsilateral partid. Next 2-3 days, enlarging parotid, severe pain. Normally bilateral. Pyrexia

66

Complications of mumps

Meningitis, encephalitis, renal function abnormalities, pancreatitis, apididymo-orchitis-inflammation of epididymis. Infection in 1st trimester increases the risk of foetal death.

67

Diagnsosis of mums

Normal WCC. Raised serum amylase. Serology (IgM)

68

Treatment for MMR

MMR vaccine