Flashcards in Childhood Viral Infections Deck (68)
Name 6 notifiable diseases
What antibodies are in breast milk?
Virus that causes measules
Paramyxovirus- enveloped single stranded RNA virus
Describe the transmission for measles
Person-person. Droplet spread
Infectivity of measles and incubation period
4 days before rash to 4 days after disappearance (10-12 days incubation)
Natural hosts for measles
Clinical features of measles
Rash, fever, conjunctivitis, coryza and cough
Koplick spots 1-2 days before rash.
Complications of measles
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)
Describe the features of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)
Rare, fatal, late (7-30 yrs after measles) infection in pregnancy- 20% foetal loss
Treatment for measles
Antibiotics for superinfection
Prevention of measles
Describe the causative organism for chicken pox
Varicella Zoster Virus-herpes virus- DNA virus
How is VZV transmitted?
Respiratory spread/personal contact
Incubation period for VZV
Infectivity of VZV
2 days before onset of rash until vesicles dry up.
Describe the rash in VZV
Centripetal (starts on trunk and diffuses peripherally)
Complications of VZV
Pneumonitis (increased risk for smokers)
Treatment for VZV
Chlorpheniramine can relieve itch (>1yr)
Prevention for VZV
Live vaccine- 2 doses (not routine)
VZ immunoglobulins given in high risk cases
Where is Rubella a problem?
Causative organism for rubella
Togavirus, RNA virus
Transmission for rubella
Incubation period for rubella
Infectivity of rubella
1 wk before rash to 4 days after
Clinical features of rubella
50% infectious children are asymptomatic. Non specific prodrome. Lymphadenopathy. V. non specific rash-behind ears, face and neck
Complications of rubella
Thrombocytopenia. Post infectious encephalitis, arthritis
Complications of rubella in pregnancy
'congenital rubella syndrome'- more severe when contracted early in pregnancy.
Cateracts and other eye defects
Retardation of intra-uterine growth
Inflammatory lesions of brain, liver, lungs and bone marrow
When in pregnancy is there a high risk of transmission of rubell?
less than 11 wks- 90% rish of transmission
Over 20 wks, no increased risk
Diagnosis of rubella
Serology IgG +ve for 3 months