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Flashcards in Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Deck (57)
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1

Which 3 fungi are common in LRTIs?

Aspergillus
Candida
Pneumocystistis Jroveci

2

Definition of chronic bronchitis

Cough productive of sputum on most days during more than 3 months of 2 successive years

3

Chronic bronchitis is associated with what risk factor?

Smoking

4

Bronchiolitis occurs in which age group?

Paediatrics

5

Causative organism for bronchiolitis

RSV

6

Infection affecting the most distal airways and alveoli- formation of inflammatory exudate

Pneumonia

7

What are the 2 anatomical patterns of pneumonia

Bronchopneumonia
Lobar pneumonia

8

Patchy distribution of pneumonia centred on inflamed bronchioles and bronchi then subsequent spread to surrounding alveoli

Bronchopneumonia

9

Pneumonia affecting a large part, or entire lobe

Lobar Pneumonia

10

Causative organism of lobar pneumonia

S. Pneumoniae

11

4 types of pneumonia based on where it is acquired

Community acquired
Hosptial acquired
-Ventilator acquired
-Aspiration

12

Hospital acquired pneumonia devleops how soon after hospital admission

>48 hrs

13

Organisms that cause pneumonia but are difficult to grow, not sensitive to penicillin and clinical presentation and treatment is different

Atypical organisms

14

Typical organisms causing pneumonia

Streptococcus pneumoniae
Hamophilus influenzae
Moraxella Catarrhalis
S.Aureus
Klebsiella penumoniae

15

Atypical organisms causing pneumonia

Mycoplasms pneumonia
Legionella pneuomphilia
Chlamydophilia pneuomoniae
Chlamydophilia psittaci
Coxiella burnetii

16

Atypical organism causing pneumonia:
Autumn epidemics every 4-8 yrs. Children and young adults. Rare complications include pericarditis, arthritis, ghuillian barre ascending polyneuropathy, peripheral neuropathy

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

17

Atypical organism causing pneumonia:
Mild pneumonia or bronchitis in adolescents and young adults.

Chlamydophila pneumonia

18

Atypical organism causing pneumonia:
Associated with exposure to birds- splenomegaly, rash, hepatitis, haemolytic anaemia and reactive arthritis on presentation.

Chlamydophilia psittaci

19

Atypical organism causing pneumonia:
Colonises water pipes. High fevers, rigors, cough, dyspnoea, vomiting, diarrhoea, confusion

Legionella pneumophilia

20

What are the 2 types of pneumonia that develop from influenza?

Primary viral pneumonia: rare- occurs in patients with pre-existing cardiac and lung disorders.
Secondary bacterial pneumonia: may develop after initial influenza (flu) presentation

21

What is the assessment for disease severity used in pneumonia?

CURB65
Confusion, urea, resp. rate >30, blood pressure 65

22

Antibiotic used to treat typical pneumonia

Amoxicillin or co-amoxiclav

23

Antibiotic used to treat atypical pneumonia

Clarithromycin (lincosamide)

24

Pneumococcal vaccination is what organisms?

Streptococcus pneumoniae

25

Describe the shape of mycobacteria

Slender, bacilli

26

Why are mycobacteria different to all other bacterial genera?

Unusual waxy cell wall (high lipid content)
Slower growing

27

What stains are used to identify mycobacteria?

Ziehl Neelson, phenol auramine

28

Another name for mycobacteria

Acid fast bacilli

29

Mycobacteria:
Intra/extracellular pathogens?
Chronic infections or latent infections?
Longer or shorter course of treatment?

Intra
Latent
Longer

30

What types of mycobateria cause TB?

M.tuberculosis
M.bovis

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