Cardiovascular Diseases 3 Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Cardiovascular Diseases 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Diseases 3 Deck (99)
Loading flashcards...
1

Inflammation of the endocardium of the heart 'vegetations on valves'

Endocarditis

2

2 main types of endocarditis

Infective
Non-infective

3

Describe the vegetations of infective endocarditis

mixture of thrombotic debris and organisms
destroy underlying cardiac tissue

4

What are the 2 types of infective endocarditis?

Acute and subacute

5

Which is caused by more virulent organisms, subacute or acute infective endocarditis?

Acute

6

Describe the vegetations of acute infective endocarditis

Friable, bulky, potentially destructive vegetations. Ring abscess

7

Which is more easily treatable with antibiotics; acute or subacute endocarditis?

Sub-acute

8

Risk factors for infective endocarditis

Cardiac/valvular abnormalities
MV prolapse
Valvular stenosis
Artificial valves
Unrepaired congenital defects
Bicuspid AV

9

Causative organisms of infective endocaridits

Streptococcus viridans
Staph A.
Coagulase -ve staphylococci

10

Which organisms can cause endocarditis, from prosthetic heart valves

Coagulase -ve staphylococci

11

Which organims can cause infective endocarditis from the mouth?

Streptococcus viridans

12

Clinical features of IE

Fever
Murmurs
Splinter haemorrhages
Janeway lesions
Oslers's nodes
Roth Spots

13

Erythematous or haemorrhagic non tender lesions on the palms or soles

Janeway lesions

14

Subcutaneous nodules in the pulp of the digits

Osler's nodes

15

Retinal haemorrhages in the eyes

Roth spots

16

Complications of IE

Immunologically mediated conditions e.g. glomerulonephritis

17

2 types of non infective endocarditis

Non bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE)
Libman Sacks endocarditis

18

In which patients do you get NBTE

cancer or sepsis.
a hypercoagulable state (DVT, PE and mucinous adenocarcinomas)
indwelling catheter lines

19

NBTE is part of what syndrome?

Trousseau syndrome of migratory thrombophlebitis

20

Describe the vegetations if NBTE

Small, sterile thrombi on valve leaflets. Single or multiple on line of closure of leaflets or cusps.

21

What are the effects of NBTE

non invasive/no inflammatory reaction>minimal local effect
Systemic emboli infarcts in the brain, heart etc

22

What type of endocarditis is associated with SLE

Libman Sacks

23

What valves are affected in libman sacks endocarditis?

Mitral and tricuspid valves

24

What are the effects of libman sacks endocarditis?

Usually asymptomatic, rarely cardiac failure or systemic emboli

25

Describe the vegetations of libman sacks endocarditis

Small (1-4mm), sterile, pink warty vegetations. Single or multiple

26

Rheumatic fever is an acute, immunologically mediated, multi-system inflammatory disease following what infection?

Group A steptococcal pharyngitis- causes scarlet's fever

27

What are the distinctive cardiac lesions, made up of T-cells, plasma cells and macrophages found in rheumatic fever?

Aschoff bodies

28

What are the vegetations called in rheumatic fever?

Venuccae

29

Pathological features of rheumatic fever

Vegtations (venuccae)
Mitral valve changes
Fish mouth or buttonhole stenoses- fibrous bridging of valvular commissures and calcification

30

Causes of rheumatic fever

Hypersensitivity reaction
Immune responses to group A strep (pharyngitis)

Decks in Clinical Pathology Class (53):