Diseases of the Skin and Eye Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Diseases of the Skin and Eye > Flashcards

Flashcards in Diseases of the Skin and Eye Deck (69)
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1

Virus that can cause scarring of the cornea and conjunctiva

VZV

2

2 forms of chlamydia that damage the cornea and conjunctiva

Trachoma: tropical disease. Common cause of blindness.
Chlamydia types d-k- mild disease: acquired during birth from infection in genital tract.

3

6 causes of cateracts

Senile degeneration
Rubella
Down's syndrome
Irradiation
Uveitis-inflammation of uvea (middle eye)

4

2 retinal infections

Toxoplasma: cat is host. Congenital infection causes severe bilateral disease. Aquired causes focal inflmmatory disease.
Toxocara Canis: from infected dog faeces, larva may migrate to retina and die causing localised inflammation.

5

3 types of retinal vascular disease

Ischaemia
Hypertensive retinopathy- flame shaped haemorrhages and exudates
Diabetic Retinopathy-dot and blot haemorrhages and exudates

6

2 types of macular degeneration

Dry macular degeneration (90%) Age related, common >60yrs. Progressive visual impairment, no treatment.
Wet macular degeneration (10%) New vessel growth beneath retina. Treat with drugs and lazers. Drugs inhibit vessel growth, injected directly into the eye.

7

2 types of tumours of the eye

Retinoblastoma
Melanoma

8

Retinoblastoma

Rare, 10% familial. Loss of Rb gene. Tumour in the retinal, treat with enucleation.

9

Melanoma

Arise in the melanocytes of the uveal tract (iris, ciliary body or choroid)
Type 1: good prognosis
Type 2: poor. Treat with radiotherapy and surgery.

10

Another word for genital warts

Condylomas

11

Superficial bacterial infection

Impetigo

12

Deep bacterial infection

Cellulitis
NF

13

Fish tank granuloma

Caused by mycobacteium marium.

14

Leprosy

Mycobacterium leprae. Chronic granulomatous infection. can involve nerves.

15

3 stages of eczma

Acute dermatitis
Subacute dermatitis
Chronic

16

Acute dermatitis

Red skin, weeping, serous exudate with or without vesicles.

17

Subacute dermatitis

Red skin, less exudate, really itchy and crusty

18

Chronic dermatitis

Skin thick and leathery, secondary to scratching

19

Spngiosis

Intercellular oedema within epidermis that you find in eczma

20

Clinical characterisitics of dermatitis

Chronic inflammation-predominantly superficial dermis. Epidermal hyperplasia and hypekeratosis.

21

5 types of dermatitis

Atopic eczma
Contact irritant dermatitis
contact allergic dermatitis
Seborrhoeic dermatitis
Nummular dermatitis

22

Coin shaped lesions, a type of dermatitis

Nummular dermatitis

23

Removal of psoriasis scab causes small bleeding points

Auspitz sign

24

Microscopic appearace of psoriasis

Psoriasiform Hyperplasia
-regular elongated club shaped rete ridges
-thinning of epidermis over dermal papilla
-parakeratoti (contain nuclei) scale
-collections of nuclei (munro microabscesses)

25

Pathogenesis of psoriasis

Massive cell turnover and inflammation

26

Causes of psoriasis

Genetic. Associated with MS/IBD
Environmental triggers-infection, stress, trauma, drugs, smoking.

27

Assocations of psoriasis

Arthropathy
CVD
Cancer (Basal cell carcinoma)

28

Discoid LE

Lupus that only affects the skin

29

Systemic LE-

Visceral disease

30

Microscopic appearance of lupus

Thin, atrophic epidermis. Infalmmation and destruction of adnexal structures.
Immunofluorescence shows LE band due to IgG deposited in basement membrane. i.e. antigens are sandwiched between keratinocytes and basement membrane.

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