Flashcards in Respiratory System Pathology Deck (76):
What is the function of type 1 pneumocytes
What is the function of type 2 pneumocytes
Respiratory failure could be a result of defects in what 3 main areas?
Ventilation, perfusion and gas exchange
What blood o2 concentration classifies as respiratory failure
What O2 and CO2 concentrations class as type 1 respiratory failure
What O2 and CO2 concentrations class as type 2 respiratory failure?
Proximal airway obstruction
Distal airway obstruction
What would you find on examination, if someone has restricted opening of their small airways?
What would you find on examination, if someone has narrowed small airways
Sound conduction through solid lung
Lung consolidation or pleural effusion- what would you see on examination?
What would you see on examination if someone had a pneumothorax or emphysema?
Benign, primary lung neoplasm
What are the 4 main type of lung cancer?
Small cell carcinoma, squamous carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated large cell carcinoma
Non small cell carcinomas account for what proportion of lung diseases?
How do secondary tumours usually present?
Multiple bilateral nodules
Which lung cancers are more peripherally sited?
What type of lung cancer is often seen with hypercalcaemia due to parathyroid related peptide in the neoplasm?
What is the usualy (90%) cause of squamous carcinoma?
Iriitants e.g. smoke, cause the normal pseudostratified columnar epithelium to undergo a reversible metastatic change to stratified squamous- may keratinise (like skin)
1st metastatic cell undergoes irreversible genetic changes
In which lung cancer is thyroid transcription factor expressed?
What is a type of adenocarcinoma that is typically termed 'adenocarcinoma in situ' that is the spread of well differentiated mucinous or non mucinous neoplastic cells on alveolar walls. Not invasive and mimic pneumonia.
Low grade, benign tumours not associated with smoking
'Oat cell' carcinomas- metastasise early, poorly differentiated. Secreted ACTH and almost all in smokers.
Small cell carcinoma
What skin condition is a paraneoplastic effect of lung carcinoma?
Hypertrophic pulmonary osteroarthropathy
What coagulopathy is common paraneoplastic effect of lung cancer?
Name a new drug used for lung cancers, that target epidermal growth factor receptors
Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors e.g. gefitinib and erlotinib
Lymph in pleural space
Pus in pleural space
Benign pleural tumour
Most common malignant secondary pleural tumour
Primary malignant pleural tumour
What risk factor is commonly associated with malignant mesothelioma?
How does early malignant mesothelioma typically present?
Small plaques on parietal pleura, may produce significant pleural effusion
These are found on the lower thoracic wall and diaphraymatic parietal pleura- marker of aspestos exposure .No physiological effect, not pre-malignant.
Fibrous pleural plaques
Causative organism of bronchiolitis
Inflammatory exudate in alveoli and distal small airways consolidations
2 anatomical types of pneumonia
Bronchopneumonia and lobar pneumonia
Which type of pneumonia is most often primary (previously healthy)?
Which type of pneumonia is often caused by strep.pneumoniae?
Which type of pneumonia is most common
Which type of pneumonia is often patchy and bronchocentric?
Describe the appearance of lobar pneumonia
congestion- red then grey
Which pneumonia typically heals with scarring?
What autoimmune sydrome can present as pulmonary vasculitis- intra-alveolar haemorrhage and glomerulonephritis
Name 4 obstructive lung condiitons
Bronchiectasis, COPD (chronic bronchitis and emphysema), asthma and bronchiolitis
Permanent dilation of bronchi and bronchioles caused by destruction of the muscle and elastic tissue. Results from chronic nectrotizing infection
Which obstructive lung condition presents as copious amounts of foul smelling sputum?
Predisposing conditions of bronchiectasis
CF, primary ciliary dyskinesia (kartagener's syndrome), bronchial obstruction, rheumatoid arthritis, IBD
What is the histological presentation of COPD
Mucous gland hyperplasia and hypersecretion
Does emphysema occur with or without fibrosis?
Differenct between emphysema and overinflation?
Both dilation of airspaces distal to terminal bronchioles, without obvious fibrosis. Emphysema- airspace wall destruction too.
3 classes of emphysema
Paraseptal (distal acinar)
Airspaces in the centre of lobules.
Which type of emphysema is associated with smoking or coal dust?
All airspaces distal to terminal bronchioles. Lower lobes mainly. Seen in 30-80% patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
Airspaces at the periphery of lobules. Often adjacent scarring and fibrosis. Pneumothorax if ruptures.
COPD with pred. bronchitis stereotype
COPD with pred. emphysema stereotype
Cor. pulmonale (dilated Right side of heart) seen in COPD patients with pred. bronchitis or pred. emphysema?
Conditions which presents as mucosal inflammation and oedema and hyperinflated lungs?
What types of asthma are there?
Atopic, acute, aspirin induced, occupational
Which type of asthma is a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction in children/adults?
Is interstitial lung disease a restrictive or obstructive lung disease?
What are the 3 characteristics of interstitial lung disease?
Increase tissue in alveolar-capillary wall- ifnlammation and fibrosis
Reduced lung compliance
Increased gas diffusion distance
Diffuse alveolar wall damage caused by shock, trauma, infection etc. activated complement and results in a massive cytokine release, presenting as acute dyspnoea, tachypneoa and respiratory distress
Adult respiratory distress syndrome
Chronic interstitial lung disease
4 types of chronic interstitial lung diseases
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Collagen vascular diseases- associated lung disease
Cobblestone pleural surface- contraction of interstitial fibrous tissue accenuates lobular architecture
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Multisystem inflammatory disorder, commonly involving mediastinal lymph nodes and lung.
Discrete non-caseating granulomas with frequent lymph node involvement
Inflammatory disorder presenting as chronic interstitial lung disease, commonly in young females
'The dust diseases'