Flashcards in Respiratory System Pathology Deck (76)
What is the function of type 1 pneumocytes
What is the function of type 2 pneumocytes
Respiratory failure could be a result of defects in what 3 main areas?
Ventilation, perfusion and gas exchange
What blood o2 concentration classifies as respiratory failure
What O2 and CO2 concentrations class as type 1 respiratory failure
What O2 and CO2 concentrations class as type 2 respiratory failure?
Proximal airway obstruction
Distal airway obstruction
What would you find on examination, if someone has restricted opening of their small airways?
What would you find on examination, if someone has narrowed small airways
Sound conduction through solid lung
Lung consolidation or pleural effusion- what would you see on examination?
What would you see on examination if someone had a pneumothorax or emphysema?
Benign, primary lung neoplasm
What are the 4 main type of lung cancer?
Small cell carcinoma, squamous carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated large cell carcinoma
Non small cell carcinomas account for what proportion of lung diseases?
How do secondary tumours usually present?
Multiple bilateral nodules
Which lung cancers are more peripherally sited?
What type of lung cancer is often seen with hypercalcaemia due to parathyroid related peptide in the neoplasm?
What is the usualy (90%) cause of squamous carcinoma?
Iriitants e.g. smoke, cause the normal pseudostratified columnar epithelium to undergo a reversible metastatic change to stratified squamous- may keratinise (like skin)
1st metastatic cell undergoes irreversible genetic changes
In which lung cancer is thyroid transcription factor expressed?
What is a type of adenocarcinoma that is typically termed 'adenocarcinoma in situ' that is the spread of well differentiated mucinous or non mucinous neoplastic cells on alveolar walls. Not invasive and mimic pneumonia.
Low grade, benign tumours not associated with smoking
'Oat cell' carcinomas- metastasise early, poorly differentiated. Secreted ACTH and almost all in smokers.
Small cell carcinoma
What skin condition is a paraneoplastic effect of lung carcinoma?
Hypertrophic pulmonary osteroarthropathy
What coagulopathy is common paraneoplastic effect of lung cancer?
Name a new drug used for lung cancers, that target epidermal growth factor receptors
Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors e.g. gefitinib and erlotinib