Respiratory System Pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Respiratory System Pathology Deck (76)
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1

What is the function of type 1 pneumocytes

Gas exchange

2

What is the function of type 2 pneumocytes

Surfactant production

3

Respiratory failure could be a result of defects in what 3 main areas?

Ventilation, perfusion and gas exchange

4

What blood o2 concentration classifies as respiratory failure

PaO2

5

What O2 and CO2 concentrations class as type 1 respiratory failure

PaO2

6

What O2 and CO2 concentrations class as type 2 respiratory failure?

PaO26.3kPa

7

Proximal airway obstruction

Stridor

8

Distal airway obstruction

Wheeze

9

What would you find on examination, if someone has restricted opening of their small airways?

Crackles

10

What would you find on examination, if someone has narrowed small airways

Wheeze

11

Sound conduction through solid lung

Cronchial breathing

12

Lung consolidation or pleural effusion- what would you see on examination?

Dull percussion

13

What would you see on examination if someone had a pneumothorax or emphysema?

Hyperesonant

14

Benign, primary lung neoplasm

Adenochondroma

15

What are the 4 main type of lung cancer?

Small cell carcinoma, squamous carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated large cell carcinoma

16

Non small cell carcinomas account for what proportion of lung diseases?

85%

17

How do secondary tumours usually present?

Multiple bilateral nodules

18

Which lung cancers are more peripherally sited?

Adenocarcinomas

19

What type of lung cancer is often seen with hypercalcaemia due to parathyroid related peptide in the neoplasm?

Squamous carcinoma

20

What is the usualy (90%) cause of squamous carcinoma?

Iriitants e.g. smoke, cause the normal pseudostratified columnar epithelium to undergo a reversible metastatic change to stratified squamous- may keratinise (like skin)

21

1st metastatic cell undergoes irreversible genetic changes

Dysplasia

22

In which lung cancer is thyroid transcription factor expressed?

Adenocarcinoma

23

What is a type of adenocarcinoma that is typically termed 'adenocarcinoma in situ' that is the spread of well differentiated mucinous or non mucinous neoplastic cells on alveolar walls. Not invasive and mimic pneumonia.

Bronchioalveolar carcinoma

24

Low grade, benign tumours not associated with smoking

Carcinoid tumours

25

'Oat cell' carcinomas- metastasise early, poorly differentiated. Secreted ACTH and almost all in smokers.

Small cell carcinoma

26

What skin condition is a paraneoplastic effect of lung carcinoma?

Acanthosis nigricans

27

Hypertrophic pulmonary osteroarthropathy

Clubbing

28

What coagulopathy is common paraneoplastic effect of lung cancer?

Thrombophelbitis migrans

29

Name a new drug used for lung cancers, that target epidermal growth factor receptors

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors e.g. gefitinib and erlotinib

30

Lymph in pleural space

Chylothorax

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