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Flashcards in GI Pathology Deck (65)
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1

How long is the oesophagus?

25cm

2

What type of epithelium lines the oesophagus?

Squamous epithelium

3

What is the name of the spinchter at the upper and lower end of the oesophagus?

Cricopharyngeal sphincter
Gastro-oesophageal sphincter

4

What type of epithelium lines the distal 2cm below the diaphragm?

Glandular (columnar) mucosa

5

The squamo-columnar junction is usually located at ___cm frm the incisor teeth

40cm

6

Reflux of gastric acid

gastro-oesophageal reflux

7

Reflux of gastric acid and/or bile

Duodeno-gastric reflux

8

2 types of hernia

Sliding hiatus hernia
Para-oesophageal hernia

9

What is a serious complication of para-oesophageal hernias?

Strangulation

10

What 3 histological changes occur in the squamous epithlium during reflex oesophagitis?

Basal cell hyperplasia
Elongation of papillae
Increase in cell desquamation

11

How might a benign stricture in reflux oesophagitis present?

Dysphagia

12

Risk factors for barrett's oesophagus

Male, caucasian, overweight

13

Define barrett's oesophagus in macroscopic terms

Proximal extention of squamo-columnar junction- squamous mucosa replaced by columnar mucosa (glandular metaplasia)

14

What are the 3 types of columnar mucosa in the GI tract

Gastric cardia type
Gastric body type
Intestinal type 'specialised barrett's oesophagu'

15

What are the 2 histological types of oesophageal carcinoma?

Squamous cell carcinoma
Adenocarcinoma

16

Risk factors for adenocarcinoma

Mle, caucasian, obestiy, Barrett's oesophagus, tobacco

17

What are the 3 types of oesophageal adenocarcinoma

Polypoidal
Stricturing
Ulcerated

18

A tumour that projects into the lumen of the oesophagus

Polypoidal

19

Risk factors for squamous carcinoma

Tobacco, alcohol, nutrition, thermal injury, HPV, male, black ethnicity

20

Location of oesophageal adenocarcinoma

lower oesophagus

21

Location of squamous carcinoma

Middle and lower 1/3rd

22

Tumour invades lamina propria, muscularis mucosae or submucosa

PT1

23

Tumour invades muscularis propria

PT2

24

Tumour invades adventitia

PT3

25

Tumour invades adjacent structures

PT4

26

No lymph node metastasis

PN0

27

Metastasises to 1 or 2 nodes

PN1

28

Metastasises to 3-6 nodes

PN2

29

Metastasises to 7 or more lymph nodes

PN3

30

No distant metastasis

MO

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