Cardiovascular Diseases 1 Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Cardiovascular Diseases 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Diseases 1 Deck (64)
Loading flashcards...
1

Inadequate blood supply to the myocardium

Ischaemic heart disease

2

What degree of coronary artery stenosis is insufficient at rest?

>90%

3

At what stage in the heart cycle does most perfusion occur?

During diastole

4

3 types of angina pectoris

Stable/typical
Variant/prinzmetal
Crescendo/unstable

5

What type of angina is a fixed obstruction, predictable and related to exertion

Stable

6

What type of angina is due to a coronary artery spasm?

Varient/prinzmetal

7

What type of angina is often due to plaque disruption?

Crescendo/unstable

8

3 causes of acute coronary syndrome?

Acute MI with ST elevation
Acute MI without ST elevation
Unstable/crescendo angina

9

Give 2 types of MI, based on what area of the heart is affected

Subendocardial
Transmural

10

Is subendocardial MI associated with ST elevation?

No

11

Causes of subendocardial MI

Stable atheromatous occlusion
Acute hypotensive episode

12

What type of MI is caused by a sudden blockage that kills the whole wall?

Transmural

13

How do transmural MIs heal?

By scarring and fibrosis- no regeneration of myocytes and no contractile function

14

Causes of transmural MIs

Coronary atheroma and thrombus

15

Gross appearance of heart tissue

Normal/dark

16

Gross appearance of heart tissue 1-2 days after an MI

Yellow, infarct centre

17

Gross appearance of heart tissue 3-7 days after an MI

Hyperaemic border, yellow centre

18

Gross appearance of heart tissue

Red/grey

19

Gross appearance of heart tissue 3-6 weeks after an MI

Scar

20

Microscopic appearance of heart tissue

Necrosis and neutrophils

21

Microscopic appearance of heart tissue 1-2 days after an MI

More necrosis and neutrophils

22

Microscopic appearance of heart tissue 3-7 days after an MI

Macrophages

23

Microscopic appearance of heart tissue 1-3 weeks after an MI

Granulation tissue

24

Microscopic appearance of heart tissue 3-6 weeks after an MI

Collagen scar

25

At what point after an MI is the heart tissue the weakest?

3-7 days- infiltrated with macrophages

26

Name 3 blood markers of cardiac myocyte damage

Troponins T&I
Creatinine Kinase
Myoglobin

27

Name the blood markers of cardiac myocyte damage in order of their appearance in the blood post MI

Myoglobin, CKMB, Troponin

28

When do troponin levels peak post MI?

12 hours

29

When else can troponin levels be high in the blood, other than post MI?

Renal failure
PE
Heart failure
Myocarditis

30

How does troponin prevent muscle contraction?

binds to actin and stops in binding to tropomyosin

Decks in Clinical Pathology Class (53):