Urinary Tract Infections Flashcards Preview

Clinical Pathology > Urinary Tract Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary Tract Infections Deck (26):
1

Commensal flora in the kidneys/ureter

Considered sterile

2

Commensal flora in the bladder

Almost always sterile

3

Commensal flora in the urethra

Perineal flora (skin/lower GI tract flora)

4

What organisms make up the perineal flora?

Skin flora-coagulase -ve staphylococci
Lower GI flora-anaerobic bacteria,aerobic bacteria (enterobacteriaeceae), gram +ve cocci-enterococcus

5

Lower UTI

Cystitis

6

Symptoms of cystitis

Dysuria
Urinary frequency
Urgency
Supra-pubic pain/tenderness
Polyuria,nocturia, haematuria

7

Upper UTI- infection of kidney and/or pelvis

Pyelonephritis

8

What additional symptoms do you get in pyelonephritis?

Fever or other evidence of systemic infection

9

Abacterial cystitis- symptoms of UTI without infection

Urethral syndrome

10

Who typically gets urethral syndrome?

30-50yrs women.

11

What are the possible causes of urethral syndrome?

Hypersensitivity reactions, hormone imbalances etc.

12

Who defined 'significant bacteriuria' and what level is classes as significant?

Kass criteria
10(5)cfu/ml

13

what does cfu stand for?

colony forming units

14

Significant bacteriuria with a single organism but no symptoms of UTI

Asymptomatic bacteriuria

15

Pus cells in urine, no organisms grown

Sterile pyruria

16

Predisposing factors for UTI

Female
Urinary stasis-pregnancy, prostatic hypertrophy, stones, strictures, neoplasia, residual urine
Instrumentation
Sexual intercourse
Fistulae-recto-vesical, vesico-vaginal
Congenital abnormalities e.g. vesico-ureteric reflux

17

Sources of UTI infection

Perineum
Fistulae-genital/GI tract to urinary tract
Haematogenous

18

3 causes of sterile pyruia

Inhibition of bacterial growth e.g. unprescribed antibiotics
Fastidious (hard to grow) organisms
Urinary tract inflammation

19

4 types of investigations for someone with a UTI

Urinanalysis
Blood tests
Microbiological
Imaging

20

Name 5 types of urine samples

Mid stream
Catheter urine
'clean catch'
supra-pubic aspirate
early morning urine (whole contents of bladder_

21

When would you carry out an early morning urine test?

Suspected urinary TB

22

When would you carry out a blood test?

suspected pyelonephritis

23

Name 4 UTI antibiotics

Nitrofurantoin
Pivmecillinam
Trimethoprim
Fosfomycin

24

When woudl you treat asymptomatic bacteriuria

Pregnant women, infants or prior to urological procedures

25

How does the course of antibiotics for cystitis vary between men and women?

Longer course for men (7 days compared to 3)

26

Treatment for pyelonephritis

Cefuoroxime
Ciprofloxacin
Piperacillin-tazobactam if >65 yrs